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Table 2 Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors stratified by socio-demographic variables, Cochabamba, Bolivia, 2015–2016

From: Prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors using the WHO STEPS approach in Cochabamba, Bolivia

STEP 1: Behavioural Risk Factors (%, 95 CI)
Socio-demographic variables Current daily smoker Current alcohol consumption Low fruit and vegetable consumption Low level of physical activity
Gender
 Female 3.25 (2.81–3.69) 33.89 (32.70–35.07) 76.29 (75.23–77.36) 72.78 (71.66–73.89)
 Male 21.57 (20.38–22.76) 54.72 (53.27–56.16) 77.32 (76.11–78.54) 53.97 (52.53–55.42)
Age group
 18–29 10.53 (9.65–11.42) 37.87 (36.47–39.27) 75.18 (73.93–76.43) 67.90 (66.55–69.25)
 30–44 12.22 (10.99–13.46) 50.64 (48.76–52.53) 76.32 (74.72–77.92) 58.83 (56.97–60.69)
 45–59 12.39 (10.78–13.99) 50.73 (48.30–53.17) 76.75 (74.70–78.81) 58.69 (56.29–61.09)
  ≥ 60 9.43 (8.07–10.79) 36.21 (33.98–38.44) 81.35 (79.54–83.16) 71.19 (69.09–73.29)
Residence
 Andean 11.37 (9.44–13.31) 35.39 (32.47–38.30) 80.32 (77.90–82.74) 59.98 (56.99–62.96)
 Southern cone 12.13 (9.60–14.65) 55.05 (51.20–58.90) 83.04 (80.14–85.95) 54.74 (50.89–58.59)
 Central Valley 11.80 (10.81–12.80) 54.51 (52.97–56.97) 72.14 (70.76–73.52) 66.98 (65.53–68.43)
 Tropics 15.83 (14.06–17.60) 54.56 (52.15–56.97) 76.85 (74.81–78.89) 51.52 (49.10–53.94)
 High Valley 7.48 (6.59–8.38) 59.98 (58.31–61.64) 79.94 (78.58–81.30) 72.03 (70.51–73.56)
Ethnicity
 Indigenous 10.57 (9.84–11.29) 41.89 (40.73–43.06) 79.01 (78.05–79.97) 62.08 (60.93–63.22)
 Mestizo 11.97 (10.92–13.01) 44.32 (42.72–45.92) 72.93 (71.50–74.36) 69.69 (68.21–71.17)
 Other 11.00 (5.10–16.91) 44.95 (35.57–54.33) 62.38 (53.24–71.52) 66.97 (58.10–75.84)
Education
 No formal schooling 6.69 (5.07–8.32) 30.51 (27.52–33.50) 83.86 (81.47–86.25) 65.97 (62.89–69.05)
 Primary school 10.28 (9.39–11.17) 41.51 (40.07–42.95) 78.76 (77.57–79.95) 61.32 (59.90–62.75)
 Secondary school 11.92 (10.91–12.92) 42.08 (40.55–43.62) 75.32 (73.98–76.66) 66.53 (65.06–68.00)
 Higher education 14.13 (12.25–16.01) 57.52 (54.85–60.18) 30.83 (28.34–33.32) 70.37 (67.90–72.83)
Marital status
 Never married 11.86 (10.77–12.95) 37.82 (36.18–39.46) 76.00 (74.55–77.44) 68.74 (67.18–70.31)
 Currently married or cohabitating 10.81 (10.05–11.57) 45.84 (44.62–47.05) 76.57 (75.54–77.60) 61.85 (60.66–63.03)
 Widowed or separated 9.83 (7.88–11.78) 39.21 (36.01–42.41) 80.67 (78.08–83.25) 70.83 (67.85–73.81)
Occupation
 Student 6.56 (5.38–7.73) 25.71 (23.64–27.79) 74.45 (72.38–76.52) 78.44 (76.49–80.39)
 Self-employed 17.19 (16.07–18.30) 51.89 (50.40–53.37) 77.72 (76.48–78.95) 49.00 (47.51–50.48)
 Employed 15.88 (13.87–17.90) 58.81 (56.10–61.52) 72.80 (70.35–75-25) 64.18 (61.54–66.83)
 Housewifee or homemaker 2.24 (1.69–2.78) 32.98 (31.25–34.72) 78.07 (76.54–79.60) 77.04 (75.49–78.60)
 Retired 10.64 (6.91–14.38) 39.16 (33.25–45.07) 76.04 (70.87–81.21) 87.83 (83.87–91.79)
 Unemployed 8.73 (4.87–12.60) 31.55 (25.19–37.91) 77.18 (71.43–82.92) 86.89 (82.27–91.51)
 Overall 11.06 (10.46–11.65) 42.76 (41.83–43.70) 76.73 (75.93–77.53) 64.77 (63.86–65.67)
STEP 2: Physical Measurements (%, 95 CI)
Socio-demographic variables Overweight Obesity Abdominal obesity Raised blood pressure
Gender
 Female 35.17 (33.91–36.43) 23.97 (22.84–25.09) 64.12 (62.86–65.39) 14.32 (13.40–15.25)
 Male 36.75 (35.28–38.22) 15.83 (14.72–16.94) 40.21 (38.71–41.17) 21.22 (19.98–22.47)
Age group
 18–29 30.66 (29.25–32.06) 10.38 (9.45–11.31) 39.10 (37.61–40.59) 8.85 (7.99–9.72)
 30–44 41.50 (39.55–43.46) 28.85 (27.06–30.65) 65.67 (63.78–67.55) 16.90 (15.41–18.39)
 45–59 39.54 (37.07–42.05) 32.48 (27.06–30.65) 69.54 (67.18–71.90) 26.96 (24.69–29.24)
  ≥ 60 37.20 (34.85–39.54) 22.83 (20.79–24.87 59.72 (57.34–62.11) 30.50 (28.27–32.74)
Residence
 Andean 38.83 (35.66–42.00) 7.37 (5.67–9.07) 41.80 (38.59–45.01) 10.01 (8.05–11.96)
 Southern cone 40.91 (36.94–44.89) 16.46 (13.47–19.46) 52.63 (48.59–56.66) 26.99 (23.40–30.58)
 Central Valley 35.36 (33.81–36.90) 22.04 (20.70–23.38) 54.10 (52.48–55.71) 18.06 (16.81–19.30)
 Tropics 33.14 (30.68–35.60) 33.14 (30.68–35.60) 61.69 (59.15–64.23) 17.63 (15.64–19.63)
 High Valley 35.81 (34.12–37.50) 20.13 (18.72–21.54) 53.89 (52.13–55.65) 16.48 (15.17–17.79)
Ethnicity
 Indigenous 35.63 (34.44–36.82) 19.80 (18.81–20.79) 53.76 (52.53–55.00) 17.17 (16.24–18.11)
 Mestizo 36.37 (34.74–38.01) 21.74 (20.34–23.15) 54.13 (52.44–55.83) 17.33 (16.05–18.62)
 Other 31.31 (22.13–40.49) 21.21 (13.11–23.90) 53.53 (43.65–63.41) 21.21 (13.11–29.30)
Education
 No formal schooling 34.84 (31.57–38.10) 18.94 (16.26–21.63) 60.14 (56.78–63.50) 23.59 (20.68–26.50)
 Primary school 36.17 (34.70–37.64) 23.40 (22.11–24.70) 57.09 (55.58–58.61) 18.03 (16.85–19.21)
 Secondary school 34.33 (32.77–35.88) 17.23 (15.99–18.47) 47.74 (46.11–49.38) 14.32 (13.17–15.47)
 Higher education 40.03 (37.22–42.83) 21.29 (18.95–23.63) 57.06 (54.22–59.88) 19.21 (16.96–21.47)
Marital Status
 Never married 28.32 (26.71–29.93) 10.22 (9.14–11.31) 34.99 (33.29–36.70) 11.52 (10.38–12.67)
 Currently married cohabitating 39.48 (38.23–70.73) 24.82 (23.71–25.93) 61.95 (60.71–63.19) 18.63 (17.63–19.63)
 Widowed or separated 37.39 (34.02–40.75) 27.22 (24.13–30.31) 65.74 (62.44–69.04) 28.98 (25.83–32.13)
Occupation
 Student 22.68 (20.58–24.78) 5.28 (4.16–6.39) 26.49 (24.28–28.70) 7.16 (5.87–8.45)
 Self-employed 38.65 (37.13–40.17) 22.07 (20.77–23.37) 54.25 (52.70–55.81) 20.34 (19.08–21.60)
 Employed 39.38 (36.54–42.22) 20.26 (17.92–22.59) 57.40 (54.53–60.27) 18.22 (15.98–20.47)
 Housewife or homemaker 37.33 (35.46–39.21) 27.71 (25.97–29.44) 68.00 (66.20–69.81) 15.99 (14.57–17.41)
 Retired 43.80 (37.53–50.06) 18.59 (13.68–23.50) 57.43 (51.19–63.68) 38.84 (32.68–44.99)
 Unemployed 34.25 (27.32–41.18) 19.33 (13.56–25.10) 56.35 (49.10–63.59) 19.33 (13.56–25.10)
 Overall 35.84 (34.89–36.80) 20.49 (19.68–21,29) 54.13 (53.17–55.08) 17.15 (16.44–17.87)