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Table 2 Comparison between indoor (kitchen, sleeping area, ETS) risk exposures among respondents in winter and summer

From: Correlation between indoor air pollution and adult respiratory health in Zunyi City in Southwest China: situation in two different seasons

Variables Winter Summer χ2a p value
Number of respondents (percentage,%) (n = 1207) Number of respondents (percentage,%) (n = 610)
Kitchen location
 Separated from other rooms 1158 (95.9) 587 (96.2) 0.089 0.756
 Within living rooms or bedrooms 49 (4.1) 23 (3.8)
Kitchen size
  ≥ 4 m2 1042 (86.3) 526 (86.2) 0.003 0.095
  < 4 m2 165 (13.7) 84 (13.8)
Frequency of opening kitchen windows
 Occasionally or never 45 (3.7) 0 (0) 49.822 < 0.001***
 Sometimes 118 (9.8) 20 (3.3)
 Most of the time 142 (11.8) 78 (12.8)
 Always 902 (74.7) 512 (83.9)
Stove used for cooking or warming
 Clean fuel stove 476 (39.4) 371 (60.8) 188.560 < 0.001***
 Fuel mix stove 263 (21.8) 190 (31.1)
 Coal stove 468 (38.8) 49 (8.1)
Duration of cooking per day
  < 30 min 581 (48.1) 384 (63.0) 90.253 < 0.001***
 30–60 min 534 (44.2) 136 (22.3)
  > 60 min 92 (7.6) 90 (14.8)
Cooking oil fumes
 Never or seldom 819 (67.9) 427 (70.0) 0.866 0.352
 Frequently or sometimes 388 (32.1) 183 (30.0)
Frequency of fan or range hood usage
 Never 65 (5.4) 22 (3.6) 102.680 < 0.001***
 Seldom 46 (3.8) 107 (17.5)
 Sometimes 183 (15.2) 97 (15.9)
 Always 913 (75.6) 384 (3.0)
Kitchen infested with pests
 Never 1071 (88.7) 553 (86.2) 7.730 0.021*
 Seldom 122 (10.1) 43 (8.4)
 Sometimes 14 (1.2) 14 (5.4)
Person(s) sharing in one bedroom
  ≥ 3 persons 222 (18.4) 113 (18.5) 0.005 0.945
  < 3 persons 985 (81.6) 497 (81.5)
Carpet
 No 1134 (94.0) 579 (94.9) 0.701 0.402
 Yes 73 (6.0) 31 (5.1)
Carpet use history (years)
  ≤ 1 y 1143 (94.7) 584 (95.7) 1.412 0.494
 1–5 y 49 (4.1) 18 (3.0)
  > 5 y 15 (1.2) 8 (1.3)
Mattress material
 Cloth or no mattress 785 (65.0) 503 (82.5) 83.037 <0.001***
 Foam or grass/grain husks 251 (20.8) 95 (15.6)
 Feather or hairpiece 171 (14.2) 12 (2.0)
Mattress use history (years)
  ≤ 1 y 509 (42.2) 279 (45.7) 2.156 0.340
 1–5 y 582 (48.2) 274 (44.9)
  > 5 y 116 (9.6) 57 (9.3)
Pillow material stuffed
 Cloth or no pillow 954 (79.1) 535 (87.7) 45.642 <0.001***
 Grass or foam 127 (10.5) 65 (10.7)
 Feather 126 (10.4) 10 (1.6)
Keep pets
 No 937 (68.9) 487 (79.8) 106.246 <0.001***
 Yes 270 (31.1) 123 (20.2)
Pet allowed in bedroom
 No 1135 (94.0) 568 (93.1) 0.583 0.445
 Yes 72 (6.0) 42 (6.9)
Water damage
 No 1112 (92.1) 575 (94.3) 2.775 0.096
 Yes 95 (7.9) 35 (5.7)
Musty air in bedroom
 No 1108 (91.8) 586 (96.1) 11.694 0.001**
 Yes 99 (8.2) 24 (3.9)
Mold in bedroom
 No 1122 (93.0) 593 (97.2) 13.848 <0.001***
 Yes 85 (7.0) 17 (2.8)
New furniture
 No 1119 (92.7) 593 (97.2) 15.097 <0.001***
 Yes 88 (7.3) 17 (2.8)
Decoration and fitment
 No 1147 (95.0) 599 (98.2) 10.829 0.001**
 Yes 60 (5.0) 11 (1.8)
Smoking status
 Non-smokers 688 (57.0) 365 (59.8) 1.803 0.406
 Ex-smokers 167 (13.8) 85 (13.9)
 Current smokers 352 (29.2) 160 (26.2)
Exposure to second-hand smoke, ETS
 Yes 222 (18.4) 518 (84.4) 742.80 < 0.001***
 No 985 (81.6) 92 (15.6)
  1. Values are number (%). a Chi-squared test, α = 0.05, *significant at p < 0.05, **significant at p < 0.01, *** significant at p < 0.001