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Table 5 Violence exposures and mental health among girls aged 10–19 years in the study area

From: Adolescent girls’ health, nutrition and wellbeing in rural eastern India: a descriptive, cross-sectional community-based study

  10–14 years 15–19 years Total
  N % N % N %
VIOLENCE
 Any form of violence in the past year (n = 3288) 836 47.6 569 37.2 1405 42.7
 Emotional violence in past year (n = 3293) 767 43.5 543 35.5 1310 39.8
 Physical violence in past year (n = 3299) 325 18.4 135 8.8 460 13.9
 Sexual violence in past year (n = 3323) 6 0.3 17 1.1 23 0.7
Perpetrators of emotional, physical or sexual violence in last year a
 Parents (n = 1405) 621 74.3 356 62.6 977 69.5
 Sibling (n = 1405) 374 44.7 235 41.3 609 43.3
 Husband (n = 1405) 2 0.2 59 10.4 61 4.3
 Parent in-law (n = 1402) 0 0 40 7.1 40 2.9
 Other relative (n = 1405) 293 35 227 39.9 520 37
 Unrelated child/adolescent (n = 1405) 232 27.8 91 16 323 23
 Employer (n = 1405) 3 0.4 4 0.7 7 0.5
 Teacher (n = 1405) 55 6.6 14 2.5 69 4.9
 Unrelated adult (n = 1405) 75 9 41 7.2 116 8.3
Sought medical attention as a result of violence (n = 597) 29 7.5 22 10.4 51 8.5
Societal violence in past year (n = 3084) 132 8.1 132 9.1 264 8.6
Seen or overheard parents/guardians shouting at each other (n = 3324) 1005 56.4 777 50.4 1782 53.6
Seen or overheard father hit or beat mother (n = 3324) 503 28.2 320 20.8 823 24.8
Seen or overheard mother hit or beat father (n = 3324) 201 11.3 87 5.6 288 8.7
MENTAL HEALTH
Answered ‘Somewhat true’ or ‘Very true’ to all BPC items (n = 3131) 41 2.4 23 1.6 64 2.0
Answered ‘Somewhat true’ or ‘Very true’ to all externalising BPC items (n = 3131) b 71 4.2 38 2.6 109 3.5
Answered ‘Somewhat true’ or ‘Very true’ to all internalising items (n = 3131) c 207 12.3 174 12.0 381 12.2
Seriously considered suicide in past year (n = 3324) 66 3.7 97 6.3 163 4.9
Made a suicide plan in past year (n = 163) 34 51.5 60 61.9 94 57.7
No. of times attempted suicide in past year (n = 163)
 Never 14 21.2 16 16.5 30 18.4
 1 time 21 31.8 40 41.2 61 37.4
 2 or 3 times 30 45.5 27 27.8 57 35.0
 4 or 5 times 0 0.0 8 8.2 8 4.9
 6 or more times 1 1.5 6 6.2 7 4.3
Think parents or guardians understand problems (n = 3324)
 Never 192 10.8 149 9.7 341 10.3
 Rarely 162 9.1 105 6.8 267 8.0
 Sometimes 171 9.6 136 8.8 307 9.2
 Most of the time 384 21.5 315 20.4 699 21.0
 Always 873 49.0 837 54.3 1710 51.4
Has close friends (n = 3324) 1553 87.1 1191 77.2 2744 82.6
  1. a Participants selected one or more options as appropriate; bitems relate to conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder and enquire about tendency to argue, destroy things, disobey parents or people at school, stubbornness, anger and threatening to hurt people; citems relate to depression and anxiety and enquire about feeling worried, unhappy, sad or depressed, fearful or anxious, self-conscious or embarrassed, worthless or inferior, and guilty