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Table 2 Associations of the prevalence of anemia (defined as a hemoglobin concentration < 140 g/ in men and < 130 g/L in women) in the Ural Eye and Medical Study, after adjusting for gender and age

From: Prevalence and associated factors of anemia in a Russian population: the Ural eye and medical study

Parameter P-Value Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Intervals
Urban / rural region of habitation 0.38   
Family status: Married / Unmarried / Divorced / Widowed / Missing 0.008 1.08 1.02, 1.14
Family status: Married versus any other status 0.01 0.83 0.72, 0.96
Family type: Joint (three generations) / nuclear (two generations) / single / family of 2 people 0.20   
Religion: Muslim / Christian / Other 0.17   
Religion: Muslim / any other religion 0.07 1.12 0.99, 1.28
Ethnicity: Russian / any other ethnicity 0.16   
Body height (cm) 0.13   
Body weight (kg) < 0.001 0.99 0.98, 0.99
Body mass index (kg/m2) < 0.001 0.97 0.96, 0.98
Waist circumference (cm) < 0.001 0.99 0.98, 0.99
Hip circumference cm) 0.001 0.99 0.99, 0.997
Waist-Hip-Ratio < 0.001 0.18 0.08, 0.38
Socioeconomic parameters
 Level of education 0.11   
 Monthly Income (Below poverty line / average / above average / high) 0.04 0.88 0.77, 0.99
 Own ownership of house (yes / no) 0.08 0.87 0.74, 1.02
 Own ownership of refrigerator (yes / no) 0.10 0.45 0.18, 1.15
 Own ownership of second house (yes / no) 0.007 0.72 0.58, 0.91
 Own ownership of telephone (yes / no) 0.79   
 Own ownership of smartphone (yes / no) 0.39   
 Own ownership of television set (yes / no) 0.60   
 Own ownership of car (yes / no) 0.001 0.72 0.60, 0.87
 Own ownership of two-wheeler (yes / no) 0.66   
 Own ownership of tractor (yes / no) 0.10 1.47 0.93, 2.31
 Own ownership of bullock cart (yes / no) 0.62   
 Own ownership of computer (yes / no) < 0.001 0.71 0.59, 0.86
Physical activity
 How long is your usual work day? (Minutes) 0.79   
 Does your work involve mostly sitting or standing with less than 10 min of walking at a time? (Yes / No) 0.97   
 Does your work involve physically vigorous activity (like heavy lifting or digging) or physically moderate intensity activity (like brisk walking or carrying light loads) (Yes / No) 0.38   
 How many days a week do you do such physically vigorous activity during work? (Yes / No) 0.67   
 On a usual day how much time do you spend on such physically vigorous work during work? (Minutes) 0.96   
 Does your work involve physically moderate-intensive activity, like brisk walking or carrying light loads for at least 10 min at a time? 0.96   
 In a typical week, on how many days do you do physically moderate to intensive activities as part of your work? 0.10   
 Per mean day including all days of the week, how much time do you spend with physically moderate to intensive activities as part of your work? 0.59   
 Do you walk or use a bicycle (pedal cycle) for at least 10 min continuously to get to and from places? 0.52   
 In a typical week, on how many days do you walk or bicycle for at least 10 min to go to and from places? 0.44   
 How much time do you spend walking or bicycling for travel in a day? 0.54   
 Does your recreation, sport or leisure time involve mostly sitting, reclining or standing activities, with no physical activity lasting more than 10 min at a time? 0.53   
 In your leisure time, do you do any physically vigorous activities like running, strenuous sports or weight lifting for at least 10 min at a time? 0.52   
 If yes, In a typical week, on how many days do you do physically vigorous activities as part of your leisure time? 0.62   
 How much time do you spend on physically vigorous activities as part of your leisure time on a typical day? 0.28   
 In your leisure time, do you do any moderate intensity activities like brisk walking, cycling or swimming for at least 10 min at a time? 0.97   
 In a typical week, on how many days do you do physically moderate to intensive activities as part of your leisure time? 0.76   
 How much time do you spend on physically moderate to intensive activities per day of week during your leisure time? (Minutes) 0.63   
 Over the past 7 days, how much time did you spend sitting or reclining on a typical day? 0.15   
History of diseases
 History of arterial hypertension 0.002 0.81 0.71, 0.93
 History of arthritis 0.11   
 History of low back pain 0.11   
 History of thoracic spine pain 0.34   
 History of neck pain 0.94   
 History of headache 0.53   
 History of therapy of hyperlipidemia 0.55   
 History of cancer 0.94   
 History of cardiovascular disorders including stroke 0.91   
 History of dementia 0.67   
 History of diabetes mellitus 0.88   
 History of diarrhea 0.35   
 History of bone fracture 0.18   
 History of heart attack 0.33   
 History of iron-deficiency anemia < 0.001 3.22 2.53, 4.10
 History of low blood pressure and hospital admittance 0.12   
 History of osteoarthritis 0.65   
 History of skin disease 0.18   
 History of use of steroids 0.55   
 History of thyreopathy 0.56   
 History of tumbling 0.08 0.87 0.74, 1.02
 History of unconsciousness 0.42   
 Age of the last menstrual bleeding (years) 0.92   
 Age of last regular menstrual bleeding (years) 0.67   
 History of menopause < 0.001 0.48 0.38, 0.62
Blood concentrations (mmol/L) of:
 Alanine aminotransferase (IU/L) 0.003 0.99 0.99, 0.997
 Aspartate aminotransferase (IU/L) 0.02 0.99 0.99, 0.999
 Bilirubin, total (μmol/L) < 0.001 0.99 0.99
 High-density lipoproteins (mmol/L) 0.88   
 Low-density lipoproteins (mmol/L) 0.02 0.94 0.89, 0.99
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) < 0.001 0.80 0.72, 0.88
 Cholesterol (mmol/L) < 0.001 0.91 0.88, 0.95
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 0.46   
 Rheumatoid factor (IU/mL) 0.001 1.10 1.04, 1.17
 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mm / hour) < 0.001 1.07 1.06, 1.08
 Glucose (mmol/L) 0.28   
 Creatinine (μmol/L) 0.001 1.004 1.002, 1.007
 Urea (mmol/L) 0.001 1.08 1.03, 1.12
 Residual nitrogen (g/L) 0.09 2.06 0.89, 4.76
 Total protein (g/L) 0.004 0.99 0.98, 0.996
 International normalized ratio (INR) 0.09 1.44 0.95, 2.19
 Blood clotting time (minutes) < 0.001 9.35 7.90, 11.1
 Prothrombin time (%) 0.05 0.99 0.99, 1.00
 Erythrocytes (106 cells / μL) < 0.001 0.000 0.000, 0.001
 Leukocytes (109 cells / L) < 0.001 0.89 0.86, 0.94
 Rod-core granulocyte (% of leukocytes) < 0.001 1.45 1.39, 1.51
 Segment nuclear granulocyte (% of leukocytes) < 0.001 0.95 0.94, 0.95
 Eosinophil granulocytes (% of leukocytes) < 0.001 1.22 1.14, 1.29
 Lymphocytes (% of leukocytes) < 0.001 1.02 1.02, 1.03
 Monocytes (% of leukocytes) < 0.001 1.05 1.03, 1.08
 Blood pressure, systolic (mmHg) 0.01 0.996 0.993, 0.999
 Blood pressure, diastolic (mmHg) < 0.001 0.98 0.98, 0.99
 Blood pressure, mean (mmHg) 0.003 0.99 0.98, 0.996
 Ankle-brachial index, right side 0.17   
 Ankle-brachial index, left side 0.07 1.51 0.97, 2.22
 Medical Doctor seen within the last year 0.91   
Diet
 Vegetarian diet / mixed diet 0.74   
 Number of meals per day 0.51   
 In a week how many days do you eat fruits? 0.46   
 How many servings of fruit do you take on one of those days (g) 0.77   
 In a week how many days do you eat vegetables? 0.35   
 How many servings of vegetables do you eat on one of those days (gram)? 0.52   
 Type of oil used for cooking: vegetable oil / non-vegetable oil 0.63   
 Food containing whole grains (Yes / No) 0.52   
 Salt consumed per day (g) 0.71   
 Degree of processing of meat (weak / medium / well done) 0.47   
Smoking
 Do you currently smoke any tobacco products? (yes) 0.39   
 Do you smoke daily? (yes / no) 0.40   
 How old were you when you first started smoking? (years) 0.95   
 Have you stopped smoking? (yes / no) 0.81   
 How many cigarettes do smoke each day? (0 / ≤10 / 11–20 / 21–30 / > 30) 0.55   
 Package years (package = 20 cigarettes) 0.51   
 Do you use smokeless tobacco (snuff, chewing tobacco)? 0.99   
 If yes, daily? (yes / no) 0.66   
 How much time after awakening do you smoke the first cigarette of the day? (< 5 min / 6–30 min. / 31–60 min. / > 60 min.) 0.009 0.76 0.62, 0.93
 Difficult to refrain from smoking in forbidden places? (yes / no) 0.99   
 Do you smoke more frequently during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day? (yes / no) 0.93   
 Do you smoke when you ill? (yes / no) 0.34   
Alcohol
 Alcohol consumed such as beer, whisky, rum, gin brandy or other local products? (yes / no) 0.13   
 Age when you first started to drink alcohol? 0.24   
 Did you stop drinking alcohol and are you still completely abstinent? 0.87   
 Age when you stopped drinking alcohol? 0.82   
 How many alcoholic drinks do you have on a typical day when you are drinking) 0.52   
 How often do you have 6 or more drinks on one occasion? (never / rarely / sometimes / often / cannot say) 0.49   
 How often during the last year have you found that you were not able to stop drinking once you had started? (never / rarely / sometimes / often / cannot say) 0.003 1.63 1.19, 2.25
 How often during the last year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking? (never / rarely / sometimes / often / cannot say) 0.02 1.55 1.08, 2.24
 How often during the last year have you needed a first drink in the morning to get yourself going after a heavy drinking? (never / rarely / sometimes / often / cannot say) 0.16   
 How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking? (never / rarely / sometimes / often / cannot say) 0.01 1.45 1.10, 1.92
 How often during the last year have you been unable to remember what happened the last night? (never / rarely / sometimes / often / cannot say) 0.26   
 Have you or someone else has been injured as a result of your drinking? 0.19   
 Has a relative, friend or a doctor or another health worker been concerned about your drinking or suggested you to drink less? 0.22   
Hearing loss
 Do you experience the hearing loss (no / sometimes / yes) 0.002 1.06 1.02, 1.10
 Does a hearing problem cause you to feel embarrassed when meeting new people? (no / sometimes / yes) 0.02 1.06 1.01, 1.12
 Does a hearing problem cause you to feel frustrated when talking to members of your family? (no / sometimes / yes) 0.07 1.05 1.00, 1.10
 Do you have difficulties in hearing when someone speaks in a whisper tone? (no / sometimes / yes) 0.04 1.05 1.002, 1.10
 Do you feel handicapped by a hearing problem? (no / sometimes / yes) 0.07 1.06 0.996, 1.12
 Does a hearing problem cause you difficulties when visiting friends, relatives, or neighbors? 0.09 1.05 0.99, 1.11
 Does a hearing problem cause you to attend religious services less often than you would like? 0.04 1.07 1.003, 1.14
 Does a hearing problem cause you to have arguments with family members? 0.29   
 Does a hearing problem cause you to have difficulties when listening to TV or radio? 0.08 1.05 1.00, 1.10
 Do you feel any difficulty with your hearing limits hampering your personal or social life? 0.04 1.07 1.003, 1.13
 Does a hearing problem cause you difficulties when in a restaurant with relatives or friends? 0.04 1.07 1.003, 1.14
 Hearing Loss Total Score 0.02 1.01 1.001, 1.01
 Webers test (> right eye / > left eye / equal) 0.02 0.80 0.67, 0.96
 Rinne test right ear (positive) 0.62   
 Rinne test left ear (positive) 0.56   
Depression
 I was bothered by things that usually don’t bother me. 0.22   
 I did not feel like eating, my appetite was poor 0.045 1.15 1.003, 1.31
 I felt that I could not shake off the blues, even with the help from family and friends 0.61   
 I felt that I was just as good as other people 0.18   
 I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing 0.28   
 I felt depressed 0.91   
 I felt that everything I did was an effort 0.41   
 I felt hopeful about the future 0.36   
 I thought my life had been a failure 0.80   
 I felt fearful 0.49   
 My sleep was restless 0.18   
 I was happy 0.52   
 I talked less than usual 0.22   
 I felt lonely 0.75   
 People were unfriendly 0.05 1.17 1.00, 1.36
 I enjoyed life 0.45   
 I had crying spells 0.24   
 I felt sad 0.97   
 I felt that people dislike me 0.92   
 I could not get “going” 0.06 1.15 0.9971.33
 Depression score (adapted) 0.46   
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)
 I feel pleasant 0.40   
 I tire quickly 0.85   
 I feel like crying 0.35   
 I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be 0.91   
 I am losing out on things because I can’t make up my mind soon enough 0.04 1.16 1.01, 1.34
 I feel rested 0.20   
 I am calm, cool and collected 0.83   
 I feel that difficulties are piling up so that I can’t overcome them 0.09 1.13 0.98, 1.30
 I worry too much over something that really doesn’t matter 0.33   
 I am happy 0.96   
 I am inclined to take things hard 0.30   
 I lack self-confidence 0.77   
 I feel safe 0.43   
 I try to avoid facing a crises or difficulty 0.23   
 I feel blue 0.20   
 I am content 0.26   
 Some unimportant thoughts run through my mind and bother me 0.11   
 I take disappointments so keenly that I can’t put them out of my mind 0.83   
 I am a steady person 0.68   
 I get in a state of tension or turmoil as I think over my recent concerns and interests 0.42   
 State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Score (adapted) 0.73   
 I attempted suicide due to financial reasons then 0.51   
 Have you thought of committing suicide in the last 6 months or earlier? 0.46   
 I thоught of suicide 0.31   
 I thоught of suicide due to financial reasons then 0.67   
Dynamometry
 Manual dynamometry, right hand (dekaNewton) < 0.001 0.98 0.97, 0.99
 Manual dynamometry, left hand (dekaNewton) < 0.001 0.98 0.97, 0.99