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Table 2 Bivariate analyses between schoolchildren’s malnutrition and its categorical background variables

From: Risk factors for malnutrition among school-aged children: a cross-sectional study in rural Madagascar

Background variable Stunting (N = 393) Underweight (N = 382) Thinness (N = 393)
(+) Stunted (−) Not stunted P-value a (+) Under-weight (−) Not underweight P-valuea (+) Thin (−) Not thin P-valuea
n (%) N (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
v1: Sex
 Male 75 54.7 135 52.7 0.751 83 57.2 121 51.1 0.247 25 56.8 185 53.0 0.749
 Female 62 45.3 121 47.3   62 42.8 116 48.9   19 43.2 164 47.0  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
v2: Diarrhea during last 14 days
 With diarrhea 4 2.9 8 3.1 1.000 5 3.4 7 3.0 0.771 2 4.5 10 2.9 0.632
 Without diarrhea 133 97.1 252 96.9   140 96.6 230 97.0   42 95.5 339 97.1  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
v3: Took deworming tables at school
 Took 53 38.7 99 38.7 1.000 63 43.2 85 35.9 0.160 16 36.4 136 39.0 0.870
 Did not take 84 61.3 157 61.3   82 56.8 152 64.1   28 63.6 213 61.0  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
Major income sources
 Daily job 46 33.6 93 36.7 Ref. 44 30.3 90 37.9 Ref. 16 36.4 122 35.7 Ref.
 v4: Agriculture or crop sales 35 25.5 83 32.4 0.137 42 29.0 73 30.8 0.731 10 22.7 110 30.9 0.299
 v5: Seller, trader or commercial business 23 16.8 22 8.6 0.020* 26 17.9 18 7.6 0.003** 7 15.9 38 10.9 0.317
 v6: Skilled wage labor 9 6.6 19 7.4 0.839 9 6.2 19 8.0 0.551 0 0.0 28 8.0 0.058
 v7: Unskilled wage labor 12 8.8 14 5.5 0.286 11 7.6 15 6.3 0.687 5 11.4 21 6.0 0.193
 v8: Small-scale industry or handicraft 8 5.8 18 6.6 0.831 8 5.5 16 6.8 0.671 5 11.4 20 5.7 0.180
 v9: Livestock or animal sales 1 0.7 4 1.6 0.662 2 1.4 3 1.3 1.000 0 0.0 5 1.4 1.000
 v10: Others 3 2.2 3 1.2 0.424 3 2.1 3 1.3 0.678 1 2.3 5 1.4 0.512
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
v11: Land ownership
 Own land for housing or farming 101 73.7 207 80.9 0.123 111 76.6 188 79.3 0.526 33 75.0 275 78.8 0.562
 Don’t own land for housing or farming 36 26.3 49 19.1   34 23.4 49 20.7   11 25.0 75 21.2  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
Education attainment of household member responsible for food preparation
 v12: Never gone to school 6 4.4 9 3.5 0.783 6 4.1 9 3.8 1.000 0 0.0 15 4.3 0.392
     Dropped out from primary school 72 52.5 112 44.1 Ref. 70 48.3 107 45.2 Ref. 22 50.0 163 46.7 Ref.
 v13: Primary school 49 35.8 100 39.1 0.586 59 40.7 88 37.1 0.516 16 36.4 133 38.1 0.870
 v14: Secondary school 8 5.8 29 11.3 0.102 10 6.9 26 11.0 0.210 6 13.6 31 8.9 0.282
 v15: High school 2 1.5 4 1.6 1.000 0 0.0 6 2.5 0.087 0 0.0 6 1.7 1.000
 v16: University or other higher education 0 0.0 2 0.4 1.000 0 0.0 1 0.4 1.000 0 0.0 1 0.3 1.000
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
v17: Type of source of water
 Improved type of source of water b 61 44.5 109 42.6 0.749 57 39.3 107 45.1 0.288 19 43.2 151 43.3 1.000
 Not improved type of source of water c 76 55.5 147 57.4   88 60.7 130 54.9   25 56.8 198 56.7  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
v18: Type of sanitation facility
 Improved type of sanitation facility d 7 5.1 16 6.3 0.622 7 4.8 16 6.8 0.512 3 6.8 20 5.7 0.733
 Not improved type of sanitation facility e 132 94.9 240 93.8   138 95.2 221 93.2   41 93.2 329 94.3  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
v19: Hand-washing after toilet of household member responsible for food preparation
 Wash hands after toilet 36 26.3 76 29.7 0.558 40 27.6 71 30.0 0.644 17 38.6 95 27.2 0.155
 Don’t wash hands after toilet 101 73.7 180 70.3   105 72.4 166 70.0   27 61.4 254 72.8  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
v20: Hand-washing before cooking of household member responsible for food preparation
 Wash hands before cooking 33 24.1 66 25.8 0.807 37 25.5 61 25.7 1.000 14 31.8 85 24.4 0.275
 Don’t wash hands before cooking 104 75.9 190 74.2   108 74.5 176 74.3   30 68.2 264 75.6  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
v21: Hand-washing before eating
 Wash hands before cooking 33 24.1 70 27.3 0.548 36 24.8 66 27.8 0.553 14 31.8 89 25.5 0.367
 Don’t wash hands before cooking 104 75.9 186 72.7   109 75.2 171 72.2   30 68.2 260 74.5  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
Rice storage
     Plastic/metal container with cover 40 29.2 106 41.3 Ref. 40 27.5 104 43.9 Ref. 13 29.5 133 38.1 Ref.
 v22: Plastic/metal container without cover 1 0.7 8 3.1 0.171 3 2.1 5 2.1 1.000 1 2.3 8 2.3 1.000
 v23: 50 kg rice bag 32 23.4 45 17.6 0.183 28 19.3 46 19.4 1.000 9 20.5 68 19.5 0.842
 v24: Handbasket bag 35 25.5 48 18.8 0.121 38 26.2 42 17.7 0.053 13 29.5 70 20.1 0.169
 v25: Plastic bag 19 13.9 24 9.4 0.179 23 15.9 20 8.4 0.030* 5 11.4 38 10.9 1.000
 v26: None (buy rice only for the day) 9 6.6 22 8.6 0.599 12 8.3 17 7.2 0.695 3 6.8 28 8.0 1.000
 v27: Others 1 0.7 3 1.2 1.000 1 0.7 3 1.3 1.000 0 0.0 4 1.1 1.000
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
Utensil maintenance
 v28: In cabinet after cleaning 23 16.8 45 17.6 0.889 23 15.9 44 18.6 0.580 7 15.9 61 17.5 1.000
     In open-space after cleaning 69 50.4 123 48.0 Ref. 74 51.0 111 46.8 Ref. 25 56.8 167 47.9 Ref.
 v29: Covered with cloth after cleaning 28 20.4 47 18.4 0.686 29 20.0 43 18.1 0.684 10 22.7 65 18.6 0.542
 v30: In open-space without cleaning 17 12.4 41 16.0 0.373 19 13.1 39 16.5 0.463 2 4.5 56 16.0 0.042*
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
Meals taken yesterday
     Breakfast, lunch and dinner/supper 135 98.6 254 99.2 Ref. 144 99.3 234 98.8 Ref. 44 100 345 98.8 Ref.
 v31: Breakfast and lunch 1 0.7 0 0.0 0.349 1 0.7 0 0.0 0.380 0 0.0 1 0.3 1.000
 v32: Lunch and dinner/supper 1 0.7 0 0.0 0.349 0 0.0 1 0.4 1.000 0 0.0 1 0.3 1.000
 v33: Only breakfast 0 0.0 2 0.8 0.545 0 0.0 2 0.8 0.528 0 0.0 2 0.6 1.000
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
v34: Yesterday’s lunch at school
 Had lunch through school feeding program 25 18.2 47 18.4 1.000 24 16.6 47 19.8 0.498 7 15.9 65 18.6 0.836
 Did not have lunch at school 113 81.8 209 81.6   121 83.4 190 80.2   37 84.1 284 81.4  
 Total 137 100 256 100   145 100 237 100   44 100 349 100  
Food consumption during last 24 hf
 v35: Cereal 137 100 256 100 (n.a.) 145 100 237 100 (n.a.) 44 100 349 100 (n.a.)
 v36: White tubers and roots 57 41.6 97 37.9 0.516 59 40.7 92 38.8 0.747 135 38.7 19 43.2 0.624
 v37: Vegetables 130 94.9 246 96.1 0.608 136 93.8 229 96.6 0.209 41 93.2 335 96.0 0.421
 v38: Fruits 13 9.5 22 8.6 0.853 14 9.7 20 8.4 0.713 4 9.1 31 3.9 1.000
 v39: Meats 38 27.7 82 32.0 0.422 33 22.8 82 34.6 0.016* 106 30.4 14 31.8 0.863
 v40: Eggs 10 7.3 34 13.3 0.093 32 13.5 11 7.6 0.095 41 11.7 3 6.8 0.450
 v41: Fish and other seafood 27 19.7 54 21.1 0.795 26 17.9 54 22.8 0.300 6 13.6 75 21.5 0.322
 v42: Legumes, nuts and seeds 59 43.1 109 42.6 1.000 63 43.4 100 42.2 0.832 20 45.5 148 42.4 0.748
 v43: Milk and milk products 10 7.3 37 14.5 0.041* 11 7.6 36 15.2 0.036* 5 11.4 42 12.0 1.000
 v44: Oils and fats 134 97.8 247 96.5 0.554 141 97.2 229 96.6 1.000 43 97.7 338 96.8 1.000
 v45: Sweets 83 60.6 184 71.9 0.024* 93 64.1 168 70.9 0.176 28 63.6 239 68.5 0.499
 v46: Spices, condiments and beverage 135 98.5 256 100 0.121 143 98.6 237 100 0.143 44 100 347 99.4 1.000
  1. *P < 0.05
  2. ** P < 0.01
  3. aChi-square test
  4. bImproved types of source of water include: (i) piped household water connection; (ii) public standpipe; (iii) protected well/borehole; (iv) Protected spring; and (v) rainwater collection
  5. cNot improved types of source of water include: (i) unprotected well; (ii) unprotected spring; (iii) surface water (river, lake, reservoir, dam, canal, irrigation channel); (iv) vendor-provided water (cart, tanker truck); and (v) bottled water
  6. dImproved types of toilet include: (i) flush connected to sewerage system (ii) flush connected to a septic tank; (iii) toilet connected to a pit; (iv) improved ventilated latrine; and (v) latrines with slab
  7. eNot improved types of toilet include: (i) flush toilet not connected to sewerage/pit; (ii) latrines without slab/open pit; (iii) bucket; (vi) joint installation with other households (public toilet); and (viii) Outdoor defecation (field, forest, bush and river)
  8. fTwelve categories of foods are based on food groups for calculating Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) [21]