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Table 2 Sociodemographic factors associated on univariate analysis with 6-month emergency room visits and hospitalisation in a Singaporean public rental flat population (N = 928)

From: Factors associated with emergency room visits and hospitalisation amongst low-income public rental flat dwellers in Singapore

  Attended emergency room in past 6 months (n%) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Hospitalised in past 6 months (n%) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Sociodemographic factors
 Age
  Age < 70 yrs 37/452 (8.2) 1.00 0.490 40/452 (8.8) 1.00 0.072
  Age ≥ 70 yrs 46/476 (9.7) 1.20 (0.76–1.88) 60/476 (12.6) 1.49 (0.97–2.26)
 Gender
  Male 47/553 (8.5) 1.00 0.560 55/553 (9.9) 1.00 0.333
  Female 36/375 (9.6) 1.14 (0.73–1.80) 45/375 (12.0) 1.24 (0.81–1.88)
 Ethnicity
  Non-Chinese 15/143 (10.5) 1.00 0.523 15/143 (10.5) 1.00 1.00
  Chinese 68/785 (8.7) 0.81 (0.45–1.46) 85/785 (10.8) 1.04 (0.58–1.85)
 Religion
  Atheist 28/209 (13.4) 1.00 0.013 28/209 (13.4) 1.00 0.165
  Religious 55/719 (7.6) 0.54 (0.33–0.87) 72/7119 (10.0) 0.72 (0.45–1.15)
 Marital status
  Not married 55/638 (8.6) 1.00 0.621 70/638 (11.0) 1.00 0.820
  Married 28/290 (9.7) 1.13 (0.70–1.83) 30/290 (10.3) 0.94 (0.60–1.47)
 Educational status
  No formal education 41/460 (8.9) 1.00 1.00 56/460 (12.2) 1.00 0.204
  Formal education 42/468 (9.0) 1.01(0.64–1.58) 44/468 (9.4) 0.75 (0.49–1.14)  
Employment
  Not working 62/605 (10.2) 1.00 0.070 84/605 (13.9) 1.00 < 0.001
  Working 21/323 (6.5) 0.61 (0.36–1.02) 16/323(5.0) 0.32 (0.19–0.56)
 Principal source of income from financial aid
  No 60/715 (8.4) 1.00 0.276 73/715 (10.2) 1.00 0.315
  Yes 23/213 (10.8) 1.32 (0.80–2.19) 27/213 (12.7) 1.28 (0.80–2.04)
Social network
 Staying alone
  Staying with someone 49/577 (8.5) 1.00 0.554 55/577(9.5) 1.00 0.127
  Staying alone 34/351 (9.7) 1.16 (0.73–1.83) 45/351 (12.8) 1.40 (0.92–2.12)
 Participating in social activities
  No 14/126 (11.1) 1.00 0.400 17/126 (13.5) 1.00 0.282
  Yes 69/802 (8.6) 0.75 (0.41–1.38) 83/802 (10.3) 0.74 (0.42–1.30)
 Participating in fitness activities
  No 24/284 (8.5) 1.00 0.803 32/284 (11.3) 1.00 0.732
  Yes 59/644 (9.2) 1.09 (0.67–1.80) 68/644 (10.6) 0.93 (0.60–1.45)
 Being a recipient of community services
  No 32/421 (7.6) 1.00 0.205 33/421 (7.8) 1.00 0.010
  Yes 51/507 (10.1) 1.36 (0.86–2.20) 67/507 (13.2) 1.79 (1.16–2.78)
 Lubben’s Social Network Score (LSNS 12)
  LSNS< 20 27/336 (8.0) 1.00 0.618 27/336(8.0) 1.00 0.127
  LSNS≥20 45/494 (9.1) 1.15 (0.70–1.89) 57/494 (11.5) 1.49 (.92–2.41)
 Depression (PHQ-2)
  Not depressed (0–2) 68/821 (8.3) 1.00 0.065 79/821 (9.6) 1.00 0.021
  Depressed [3,4,5,6] 12/82 (14.6) 1.89 (0.98–3.68) 15/82 (18.3) 2.10 (1.15–3.89)
 Loneliness (UCLA 3-item)
  Not lonely [1,2,3] 44/640 (6.9) 1.00 0.008 57/640 (8.9) 1.00 0.071
  Lonely [4,5,6,7,8,9] 29/225 (12.9) 2.00 (1.22–3.29) 30/225 (13.3) 1.57 (0.98–2.52)
 Experienced at least 1 stressful life event in the past year
  No 8/47 (17.0) 1.00 0.061 10/47 (21.3) 1.00 0.027
  Yes 75/881 (8.5) 0.45 (0.21–1.00) 90/881 (10.2) 0.42 (0.20–0.88)
Functional status
 Visual problems
  No visual problems 66/756 (8.7) 1.00 0.657 72/756 (9.5) 1.00 0.014
  Has visual problems 17/172 (9.9) 1.15 (0.65–2.00) 28/172 (16.2) 1.85 (1.15–2.96)
 Hearing problems
  No hearing problems 72/812 (8.9) 1.00 0.862 82/812 (10.1) 1.00 0.107
  Has hearing problems 11/116 (9.5) 1.08 (0.55–2.10) 18/116(15.5) 1.64 (0.94–2.84)
 Falls
  No falls 50/688 (7.3) 1.00 0.004 60/688 (8.7) 1.00 0.001
  At least 1 fall in past year 33/240 (13.8) 2.03 (1.28–3.24) 40/240 (16.7) 2.09 (1.36–3.22)
 bADLs
  No limitations in bADLs 54/732 (7.4) 1.00 0.003 63/732 (8.6) 1.00 < 0.001
  Some limitations in bADLs 29/196 (14.8) 2.18 (1.34–3.53) 37/196 (18.9) 2.47 (1.59–3.84)
 iADLs
  No limitations in iADLs 42/617 (6.8) 1.00 0.002 43/617 (7.0) 1.00 < 0.001
  Some limitations in iADLs 41/311 (13.2) 2.08 (1.32–3.27) 57/311 (18.3) 3.00 (1.96–4.57)
Self-management
 Coping (PIH coping subscale)
  Poorer coping 51/384 (13.3) 1.00 0.016 61/384 (15.9) 1.00 0.005
  Better coping 27/351 (7.7) 0.54 (0.33–0.89) 31/351 (8.8) 0.51 (0.32–0.81)
 Adherence (PIH adherence subscale)
  Poorer adherence 39 /424 (9.2) 1.00 0.031 48/424 (11.3) 1.00 0.090
  Better adherence 42/289 (14.5) 1.68 (1.06–2.67) 46 /289 (15.9) 1.48 (0.96–2.29)
 Knowledge (PIH knowledge subscale)
  Poorer knowledge 48/392 (12.2) 1.00 0.345 59/392 (15.1) 1.00 0.192
  Better knowledge 33 (9.8) 0.78 (0.49–1.24) 39/336 (11.6) 0.74 (0.48–1.14)
Medical status
 Charlson Comorbidity Index
  CCMI = 0 12/337 (3.6) 1.00 < 0.001 15/337 (4.5) 1.00 < 0.001
  CCMI≥1 71/591 (12.0) 3.70 (1.98–6.92) 85/591(14.4) 3.61 (2.05–6.35)
 Smoking status
  Not smoking 63/689 (9.1) 1.00 0.793 79/689 (11.5) 1.00 0.277
  Currently smoking 20/239 (8.4) 0.91 (0.54–1.54) 21/239 (8.8) 0.74 (0.45–1.23)
 Self-rated health (HRQoL)
  Not in perfect health 57/509 (11.2) 1.00 0.008 75/509 (14.7) 1.00 < 0.001
  In perfect health 26/419 (6.2) 0.53 (0.32–0.85) 25/419 (6.0) 0.36 (0.23–0.59)
Medical consultation
 Seen a primary care practitioner in past 6 months
  No 28/210 (13.3) 1.00 0.019 30/210 (14.3) 1.00 0.075
  Yes 54/698 (7.7) 0.55 (0.34–0.89) 68/698 (9.7) 0.65 (0.41–1.03)
 Seen a traditional medicine practitioner in past 6 months
  No 70/750 (9.3) 1.00 0.545 85/750 (11.3) 1.00 0.323
  Yes 12/158 (7.6) 0.78 (0.42–1.51) 13/58 (8.2) 0.70 (0.38–1.29)