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Table 4 Parameter estimates of main effects for stunting of children using GLMM

From: Understanding correlates of child stunting in Ethiopia using generalized linear mixed models

Covariates Estimates S.E 95% CI OR P-value
Intercept −2.16258 0.24340 (−3.380, −2.002) 0.115 <  0.001 ***
Child age (ref = 0–11 months)
 12–23 months 1.71504 0.15198 (1.413, 2.001) 5.556 <  0.001 ***
 24–59 months 2.01208 0.13679 (1.746, 2.228) 7.479 <  0.001 ***
Preceding birth interval(ref = < 24)
 24–47 months 0.02248 0.16779 (−0.307, 0.351) 1.023 0.893
 48 and above months 0.29244 0.18766 (− 0.055, 0.680) 1.34 0.119
 Sex of child (Female) − 0.17457 0.04912 (−0.271, − 0.079) 0.84 <  0.001 ***
 BMI (less than 18.5) − 0.20876 0.05841 (−1.064, − 0.200) 0.812 <  0.001 ***
Wealth index (ref = poor)
 Middle −0.23438 0.08017 (−0.399, − 0.084) 0.791 <  0.001 ***
 Rich − 0.43440 0.07681 (−0.571, − 0.256) 0.648 <  0.001 ***
Mother education (ref = no education)
 Primary −0.14040 0.06230 (−0.251, − 0.006) 0.869 0.024 *
 Secondary and higher −0.44999 0.11318 (− 0.636, − 0.186) 0.638 <  0.001 ***
 Breast (No) 0.20309 0.05585 (0.093, 0.312) 1.225 <  0.001 ***
Types of toilet facility (ref = flush)
 Latrine 0.33974 0.16403 (0.006, 0.638) 1.405 0.038 *
 No facility 0.42179 0.16824 (0.064, 0.726) 1.523 0.012*
 Use of internet (Yes) −0.83650 0.24302 (−1.289, − 0.332) 0.433 < 0.001 ***
Source of drinking water (ref = piped)
 Public tap 00.17173 0.17386 (−0.668, 0.219) 1.187 0.323
 Protected spring 0.05793 0.24192 (−0.903, 0.165) 1.059 0.810
 Other 0.29269 0.17915 (−0.608, 0.311) 1.340 0.102
  1. Significance codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05