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Table 2 Summary of the methodological approaches, tools used and variables captured for objective 1

From: Innovative matrix for applying a food systems approach for developing interventions to address nutrient deficiencies in indigenous communities in India: a study protocol

Objectives and sub objectives Methodological approaches and activities Tools used Source for primary data
Or secondary data
Variables captured
Characterize the food environment
Appreciate knowledge and perception of specific tribal communities regarding their use of indigenous foods
Assess any shift in dietary patterns in these communities vis-à-vis indigenous food intake
Gathering traditional food list data
Traditional food seasonality and popularity in the community among various age groups
Little used or currently unused traditional foods known to elders
Developing traditional food list
Selecting short list of potential micronutrient rich foods for more detailed study
Patterns of harvest, storage and preparation
Identifying shifts in dietary patterns (if any) and perceptions regarding indigenous foods
PRA exercises using qualitative tools
Focus group discussions,
in-depth interviews
Study tools adapted from CINE (Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Enviroment) protocol [28]
Community, adults, elders, traditional healers, community workers
Secondary data on published literature, reports, documents
List of indigenous foods
List of indigenous foods, not used currently
Potential micronutrient rich indigenous foods
Information on harvest, storage and preparation
Information on present vs previous diets
Map the biodiversity and assess availability, access and utilization of indigenous foods by these communities Village transect to understand the social, physical and ecological characteristics of the community and its surrounding area
Village map
Village transect question guide
Village map
Group of village adults (men and women) who know the territory well e.g. village elders, religious leaders, community leaders, frontline workers like anganwadi workers and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) Infrastructure like kind of households, electricity, road; irrigation facility and water sources, types of trees, useful plants, location for productive activity like agriculture, livestock, human settlements, type of vegetation, type of soil, plots, types of crops, grazing and forest land, visible problems that may affect food security, schools, shops, markets, places of worship, medical facility
Location of the social and ecological characteristics, natural and physical resources, neighborhoods within the community, vulnerable households, patters of access and control over resources for food security.
Characterize farming systems to understand constraints and opportunities for improving indigenous food production and
Resilience of present farming system to climatic variability
Agricultural diversity
Food from the market
Historical timelines and climate trends
Changing farming practices and crop ranking
Climate risk and coping mechanism
Household survey
(tab based questionnaire for electronic data capture)
Market survey
Qualitative
Focus groups discussions and key informant interviews
Climate risk and coping mechanism matrix
Information from households on farming system/agricultural practices, crops species grown in the agricultural fields and backyards, products collected from forests
Vendors and shop owners, community members
Men and women of all ages, include elderly members
Agricultural diversity calculated from MFAD and Shannon entropy index for the region
Crop species richness in the tribal communities
Present use of indigenous varieties vs hybrid varieties
Present products in the market, accessibility to the community, cost and affordability of nutrient rich food items
Main climate events in the past, climate tendencies over the years, periods of food insecurity or even famine. Impact on livelihood strategies, natural resources and food systems. Changes in farming practices, their causes and consequences, impact of changes in farming practices, the impact of changes in food security, main characteristics of indigenous crops. Types of climate risk, consequences of climate risk and the existing adaptive capacity
Examine barriers and facilitators to increase sustainable production, procurement and consumption of indigenous foods   FGDs with community members, community leaders Men and women in the community Types of products (food and non-food items) collected, livelihood strategies (including the intensification of subsistence production), beliefs
Types of products (food and non-food items) cultivated, grown (land, kitchen garden, ponds)
Identify livelihood strategies, including the intensification of subsistence production
Beliefs, perceptions and practices on foraging or hunting
Traditional and legal rights to access forest areas
Seasonality of forest products (food and non-food items)
Traditional roles of foraging/hunting
Transition into market economy- emerging market-based opportunities for forest products
Access to food items sold in the market, or community stores
Access to food items from government schemes like PDS (Public Distribution System (PDS), Anganwadi centres