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Table 4 Determinants of severe illness, overall and by specific infectious diseases, during 21,278 clinic visits by children under 5 years to the MRC Keneba clinic, and the association between these determinants and mortality in 50 children

From: Nutritional status and disease severity in children acutely presenting to a primary health clinic in rural Gambia

  All severe illness N = 961 Severe intestinal infections N = 183 Severe LRTI N = 348 Severe pneumonia N = 287 Severe bronchiolitis N = 66 Death N = 50
  OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) P RR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) P RR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) P RR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) P RR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) P RR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) P
Female 0.87 (0.75–1.00) 0.96 (0.83–1.11) 0.58 0.61 (0.44–0.83) 0.76 (0.55–1.06) 0.10 1.03 (0.81–1.31) 1.05 (0.82–1.35) 0.69 1.03 (0.80–1.32) 0.84 (0.62–1.14) 0.26 0.87 (0.52–1.46) 0.88 (0.51–1.49) 0.63 1.02 (0.59–1.79) 1.81 (0.86–3.78) 0.12
Age (months)a 0.98 (0.98–0.99) 0.98 (0.98–0.99) < 0.001 0.96 (0.95–0.97) 0.96 (0.94–0.97) < 0.001 0.97 (0.96–0.98) 0.97 (0.96–0.98) < 0.001 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.98 (0.97–0.99) < 0.001 0.91 (0.88–0.94) 0.92 (0.89–0.94) 0.00 0.95 (0.92–0.97 0.93 (0.87–0.99) 0.03
Risk stunting HAZ - ≤ 1 & > −2) 0.91 (0.78–1.07) 0.93 (0.79–1.08) 0.34 0.80 (0.56–1.15) 0.83 (0.57–1.20) 0.31 0.79 (0.61–1.03) 0.85 (0.66–1.10) 0.22 0.89 (0.67–1.18) 0.81 (0.57–1.16) 0.26 0.48 (0.27–0.58) 0.68 (0.38–1.24) 0.21 1.81 (0.79–4.14) 1.82 (0.71–4.67) 0.21
Moderate stunting (HAZ ≤ -2 and > − 3) 1.11 (0.92–1.34) 1.01 (0.83–1.22) 0.95 1.04 (0.68–1.59) 0.86 (0.56–1.33) 0.50 0.84 (.61–1.16) 0.85 (0.61–1.19) 0.35 1.02 (0.72–1.43) 0.93 (0.62–1.41) 0.74 0.33 (0.12–0.86) 0.54 (0.21–1.40) 0.20 3.73 (1.60–8.68) 1.89 (0.56–6.38) 0.31
Severe stunting (HAZ ≤ -3) 1.62 (1,26–2.08) 1.19 (0.94–1.51) 0.15 1.96 (1.17–3.29) 1.09(0.67–1.78) 0.72 0.83 (0.48–1.44) 0.76 (0.43–1.31) 0.32 0.94 (0.52–1.71) 1.48 (0.99–2.46) 0.13 0.57 (0.14–0.28) 0.84 (0.22–3.30) 0.81 12.82 (5.55–29.62) 6.04 (1.94–18.78) < 0.001
Risk of wasting (WHZ - ≤ 1 & > −2) 1.63 (1.39–1.91) 1.68 (1.43–1.98) < 0.001 2.25 (1.44–3.49) 2.54 (1.61–3.99) < 0.001 1.40 (1.08–1.82) 1.53 (1.18–1.99) < 0.001 1.68 (1.27–2.21) 1.41 (0.99–2.02) 0.06 0.60 (0.32–1.15) 0.83 (0.44–1.57) 0.57 1.59 (0.64–3.94) 1.65 (0.64–4.26) 0.30
Moderate wasting (WHZ ≤ -2 and > −3) 2.90 (2.41–3.48) 2.78 (2.31–3.36) < 0.001 8.27 (5.44–12.59) 8.13 (5.27–12.54) < 0.001 1.71 (1.19–2.44 1.79 (1.24–2.57) < 0.001 2.04 (1.40–2.97) 2.20 (1.41–3.44) < 0.001 0.59 (0.17–2.10) 0.76 (0.22–2.69) 0.67 2.35 (0.75–7.34) 1.88 (0.58–6.05) 0.29
Severe wasting (WHZ - ≤ 1 & > −2) 9.09 (7.49–11.02) 7.82 (6.40–9.55) < 0.001 27.57 (17.71–42.92) 22.81 (14.53–35.80) < 0.001 3.71 (2.38–5.78) 3.37 (2.14–5.32) < 0.001 4.34 (2.65–7.10) 5.37 (3.04–9.50) < 0.001 1.68 (0.47–6.00) 1.78 (0.51–6.30) 0.37 16.30 (6.36–41.80) 9.33 (3.39–25.70) < 0.001
  1. All P-values are for adjusted risk ratios. Adjusted model is corrected for all other variables in the table, plus access to transport and mother’s education level. a Continuous variable. b Including children with weight-for-height data in the 101 days preceding death (N = 30)