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Table 1 Classes of determinants of discrepancies of reported morbidity to actual morbidity

From: The score of integrated disease surveillance and response adequacy (SIA): a pragmatic score for comparing weekly reported diseases based on a systematic review

stages of patient care Classes of determinants or potential distorting factors References
Perception of the illness and Health care access Form and perceived severity of illness [35,36,37,38,39,40]
Etiological concept and type of disease [38, 40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47]
Individual characteristics of patients [38, 43, 48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55]
Socio-economic characteristics of patients [38, 43, 54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65]
Attractiveness factors of places [66,67,68,69,70,71]
Geographical accessibility [38, 42,43,44, 61, 72,73,74,75]
Characteristics of the environment [66, 76,77,78]
Urbanization [79,80,81,82,83]
Movements of population [84]
Diagnosis Presence of an intervention program [22, 85, 86]
Functioning of health services: quality of service and framework [38, 44, 48, 58, 62, 87,88,89,90]
Staff competence [44, 62, 87, 91]
Lack of supplementary diagnosis [44, 92]
Lack of clinical standardized decision tree for diagnosing [91, 93, 94]
Difficulty of differential diagnosis with other diseases [20, 31,32,33,34]
Spatial distribution of disease [95,96,97]
Data reporting Staff competence [84]
Standardization of data collection tools [84, 98]
Large volume of work [31]
Falsification of data [31]
Typing errors [31, 99]
Integration of the disease into a national or global strategy [10, 100]
Characteristic of the response [10, 100]