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Table 4 Odds ratio of self-reported chronic diseases by behavioral risk factors and socioeconomic-demographic characteristics among adult population (18–69 years) in India, 2007

From: Association of behavioral risk factors with self-reported and symptom or measured chronic diseases among adult population (18–69 years) in India: evidence from SAGE study

Socioeconomic-demographic characteristics Self-reported chronic diseases (Adjusted odds ratio, 95% CIs)
Angina Depression Hypertension COPD Arthritis Asthma Stroke Diabetes
Physical activity
 Physical inactivity@
  Moderate active 1.28(0.77,2.13) 0.30*(0.18,0.50) 1.09(0.80,1.48) 0.74(0.42,1.29) 0.68*(0.52,0.90) 1.24(0.74,2.09) 0.22*(0.09,0.54) 1.36(0.76,2.45)
  Vigorous active 0.90(0.50,1.61) 0.47*(0.28,0.78) 1.02(0.73,1.44) 0.36*(0.20,0.66) 0.73*(0.55,0.99) 1.04(0.61,1.78) 0.49(0.22,1.12) 0.94(0.54,1.62)
Nutritional status
 Inadequate intake# @
  Adequate intake## 0.31*(0.16,0.60) 3.45*(1.99,5.97) 0.76(0.48,1.20) 0.22*(0.09,0.54) 1.24(0.78,1.96) 0.20*(0.10,0.42) 0.77(0.20,2.96) 0.80(0.36,1.81)
Alcohol consumption^
 Non-drinkers@
  Infrequent moderate drinkers 0.38 (0.15,1.01) 0.98(0.48,1.99) 1.63(0.88,3.03) 1.53(0.62,3.77) 1.12(0.55,2.28) 0.38*(0.19,0.77) 1.29(0.23,7.20) 0.57(0.23,1.40)
  Frequent heavy drinkers 0.13*(0.03,0.59) 1.72(0.61,4.80) 0.93(0.22,4.01) 0.32(0.10,1.00) 1.84(0.65,5.22) 1.37(0.51,3.73) 0.26(0.05,1.41) 1.49(0.24,9.12)
Any tobacco use
 No@
  Yes 1.31(0.84,2.05) 1.07(0.67,1.72) 1.17(0.86,1.59) 1.06(0.58,1.92) 1.06(0.80,1.40) 0.91(0.57,1.46) 3.59*(1.07,12.13) 0.93(0.58,1.47)
Body mass Index
 Normal weight@
  Underweight 0.79(0.49,1.27) 0.84(0.54,1.32) 0.82(0.60,1.11) 2.52*(1.57,4.04) 0.67*(0.52,0.87) 1.41(0.87,2.27) 0.33*(0.15,0.73) 0.94(0.49,1.82)
  Overweight 1.02(0.58,1.77) 1.83(0.92,3.63) 1.91*(1.32,2.75) 0.28*(0.14,0.55) 2.35*(1.68,3.28) 1.29(0.55,3.03) 0.84(0.27,2.59) 2.79*(1.55,5.01)
  Obese 0.80(0.32,1.98) 0.74(0.32,1.74) 2.30*(1.49,3.53) 0.93(0.28,3.03) 0.87(0.51,1.49) 1.82(0.60,5.58) 1.66(0.29,9.61) 1.70(0.95,3.05)
Place of residence
 Urban@
  Rural 0.78(0.45,1.35) 1.22(0.77,1.95) 0.85(0.64,1.12) 1.74(0.94,3.23) 1.45*(1.08,1.96) 0.82(0.52,1.32) 0.66(0.26,1.71) 0.88(0.53,1.45)
Member’s sex
 Male@
  Female 1.04(0.71,1.52) 0.58(0.25,1.35) 2.32*(1.70,3.17) 0.37*(0.21,0.65) 1.70*(1.27,2.27) 0.59(0.34,1.03) 1.53(0.64,3.69) 0.40*(0.24,0.66)
Age group
 18-29@
  30–44 9.12*(4.05,20.56) 3.03*(1.43,6.42) 3.11*(1.89,5.12) 2.79*(1.17,6.67) 2.93*(1.83,4.72) 2.38(0.93,6.10) 0.70(0.16,3.00) 2.92*(0.94,9.07)
  45–59 7.24*(3.28,15.98) 3.44*(1.62,7.29) 6.52*(3.93,10.83) 3.63*(1.62,8.12) 5.98*(3.75,9.54) 3.48*(1.34,9.00) 0.99(0.21,4.79) 5.94*(1.94,18.2)
  60–69 11.84*(5.08,27.61) 3.22*(1.46,7.10) 7.80*(4.60,13.23) 3.97*(1.74,9.05) 8.89*(5.53,14.28) 7.53*(3.01,18.86) 1.76(0.31,9.95) 7.91*(2.54,24.59)
Educational attainment+++
 No education@
  <primary & primary 0.95(0.59,1.53) 1.17(0.72,1.89) 0.93(0.70,1.25) 1.10(0.62,1.93) 1.15(0.88,1.51) 0.80(0.50,1.29) 1.53(0.71,3.28) 1.00(0.58,1.71)
  Secondary 2.47*(1.31,4.66) 1.06(0.50,2.23) 1.28(0.86,1.91) 1.66(0.79,3.47) 1.32(0.91,1.93) 0.92(0.45,1.87) 0.99(0.18,5.31) 1.10(0.50,2.41)
  High school & above 1.25(0.58,2.70) 1.09(0.57,2.07) 1.48(0.97,2.25) 1.33(0.60,2.93) 0.84(0.53,1.34) 1.03(0.54,1.96) 0.61(0.20,1.83) 1.04(0.49,2.22)
Wealth Quintile
 Poorest@
  Poor 0.83(0.40,1.68) 1.16(0.60,2.24) 1.14(0.72,1.81) 0.62(0.32,1.19) 0.90(0.62,1.30) 0.99(0.56,1.77) 2.75(0.86,8.74) 0.90(0.37,2.21)
  Middle 1.24(0.58,2.64) 1.13(0.60,2.12) 1.71*(1.09,2.69) 0.66(0.33,1.34) 0.97(0.66,1.43) 0.68(0.36,1.27) 1.53(0.50,4.70) 2.03(0.77,5.33)
  Rich 0.89(0.42,1.92) 1.46(0.78,2.75) 1.75*(1.10,2.80) 0.78(0.39,1.58) 0.70(0.47,1.06) 1.03(0.52,2.01) 1.08(0.27,4.24) 1.30(0.51,3.32)
  Richest 0.71(0.35,1.47) 0.69(0.33,1.43) 2.09*(1.28,3.42) 0.39(0.15,1.06) 0.58*(0.38,0.87) 1.12(0.46,2.72) 4.47*(1.06,18.88) 2.12(0.81,5.54)
  1. Significant at * p < 0.05, @ reference category
  2. Other control variables are place of residence, religion, caste, and religious services
  3. # ## +++ same define as in Table 1
  4. ^ Infrequent moderate alcohol drinkers includes 1–3 days/month with < 2 drinks, and frequent heavy alcohol drinkers includes 1–5 or more days/week with ≥3 drinks
  5. Note: Odds ratio presented in table are adjusted odds ratio and based on weighted analysis