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Table 4 Multivariate logistic regression models examining the association between food insecurity and health and academic outcomes among first-year college students at risk of weight gain in the United Statesa (n = 855), 2016

From: Prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among U.S. college students: a multi-institutional study

Dependent Variable Odds Ratio 95% CI P-value
Overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) 1.28 0.84 to 1.96 0.242
High Stressb 4.65 2.66 to 8.11 < 0.001
Poor Sleep Qualityc 2.32 1.43 to 3.76 0.001
Disordered Eatingd 2.49 1.20 to 4.90 0.010
GPA (< 3.0) 1.91 1.19 to 3.07 0.007
  1. aModels controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, place of residence, meal plan, employment, Pell grant status, university, and parental education
  2. bOn a scale of 0 to 56, with higher numbers indicating more stress. The score was dichotomized at 28, with scores ≥ 28 considered high stress [37, 38]
  3. cOn a scale of 0 to 21, with higher numbers indicating worse sleep quality. The score was dichotomized at 5, with scores ≥ 5 considered poor [35]
  4. dOn a scale of 0 to 78, with higher numbers indicating a higher level of problematic eating behaviors and a high level of concern about dieting and body weight. The score was dichotomized at 20, with scores ≥ 20 indicating disordered eating [40, 41]