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Table 4 Individual and school factors associated with BMI

From: Association between school-level attributes and weight status of Ghanaian primary school children

  Model 1
Null model
  Model 2
Individual
Model 3
School
Model 4
Individual & school
Estimate (95% CI) SE Estimate (95% CI) SE Estimate (95% CI) SE Estimate (95% CI) SE
Fixed effects
Individual level
 Intercept 17.136 (16.233, 18.038) 0.460       
 Age    0.304 (−0.002, 0.609) 0.156    0.396 (0.102, 0.691)* 0.150
 Sex (Boys)    0.011 (−0.563, 0.583) 0.293    0.001 (− 0.571, 0.573) 0.292
 Household wealth index    0.010 (−0.152, 0.172) 0.083     
 Household SES         
 Poor (ref)         
 Middle    0.113 (−0.547, 0.774) 0.337     
 Rich    0.132 (−0.726, 0.990) 0.438     
School level
 School level SES      0.959 (0.481, 1.437)** 0.244 1.015 (0.499, 1.530)** 0.263
 School type (private)      1.744 (0.185, 3.303)* 0.795 −1.795 (−3.078, −0.513)* 0.654
 School cafeteria      1.832 (0.324, 3.340)* 0.769 0.742 (−0.330, 1.814) 0.547
 School shop      2.344 (0.926, 3.762)* 0.724 0.276 (−0.781, 1.333) 0.539
 Fast foods restaurants close to school      1.101 (−2.401, 4.602) 1.787
 Healthful foods      0.769 (0.012, 1.526)* 0.386 0.306 (−0.136, 0.748) 0.225
 Less healthful foods      0.382 (0.003, 0.762)* 0.194 −0.094 (− 0.306, 0.119) 0.108
 PA facility index      −0.143 (− 0.391, 0.105) 0.126
 Minutes per week for PA      −0.014 (− 0.064, 0.035) 0.025
 School support for active transport      −0.136 (− 0.840, 0.568) 0.359
 Perceived neighbourhood quality      0.176 (−0.327, 0.678) 0.256
 After school recreational facilities      1.134 (0.562, 1.705)** 0.291 0.894 (0.525, 1.263)** 0.23
 Physical activity policy      −2.957 (−6.088, 0.174) 1.597
 Nutrition policy & healthy eating policy      −0.657 (−3.247, 1.933) 1.321
 Physical activity on timetable      −1.098 (3.585, 1.389) 1.269
Random effects
 Individual level 10.802 (9.574, 12.187)** 0.665       
 School level 2.650 (1.121, 6.265)** 1.163       
 ICC 0.197 (0.093, 0.370) 0.070       
  1. Explanatory variables that were significant compared with the empty model were selected for the final model (model 4). Variables included: school level SES, school type, school cafeteria, school shop, healthy food, less healthful foods, after school recreational facilities, sex and child’s age. b Linear mixed models used, where variables were modelled as fixed effects and school as random effects. SE standard error, CI confidence intervals. * = p < 0.05; ** = p < 0.0001