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Table 1 Descriptive statistics at the individual and school levels

From: Association between school-level attributes and weight status of Ghanaian primary school children

  Overall Private Public p-value
Continuous variables*
Individual level (N = 543)
 Age (years) a 10 (9, 11) 10 (9,11) 10 (9,11) 0.756
 BMI (kg/m2) 17.03 (3.56) 17.72 (4.29) 16.34 (2.47) < 0.0001
 WHtR 0.43 (0.05) 0.43 (0.06) 0.42 (0.03) 0.026
 Household wealth index 0.27 (−1.47, 1.69) 1.10 (−0.11, 2.16) − 0.87 (−2.43, 0.51) < 0.0001
School level (n = 14)
 School level SES 0.11 (−0.34, 0.79) 0.78 (0.34, 1.27) −0.34 (−1.73, − 0.20) < 0.0001
 Healthful foods 2.44 (1.06) 3.16 ± 0.85 1.72 ± 0.70 < 0.0001
 Less healthful foods 8.24 (2.04) 9.10 ± 1.07 7.37 ± 2.39 < 0.0001
 PA facility index 3.54 (1.30) 4.21 ± 1.07 2.87 ± 1.16 < 0.0001
 Minutes per week for PA 69.00 (16.43) 76.5 ± 19.31 60.00 ± 0.00 < 0.0001
 After-school recreational facilities 0.65 (0.97) 0.93 ± 1.23 0.37 ± 0.48 < 0.0001
 Support for active transport 2.59 (1.19) 2.75 ± 1.12 2.43 ± 1.24 0.002
 Perceived neighbourhood quality 3.71 (1.83) 3.99 ± 1.11 3.43 ± 2.3 0.0004
Categorical variables*
Individual level
 Sex     0.833
 Boys 37.6 (204) 49.5 (101) 50.5 (103)  
 Girls 62.4 (339) 50.5 (171) 49.5 (168)  
Household SES < 0.0001
 Poor 40.1 (218) 26.1 (57) 73.9 (161)  
 Middle 40.0 (217) 60.4 (131) 39.6 (86)  
 Rich 19.9 (108) 77.8 (84) 22.2 (24)  
Overweight (including obesity) 16.4 (89) 73.0 (65) 27.0 (24) < 0.0001
Abdominal obesity 18.8 (102) 63.7 (65) 36.3 (37) 0.002
School level
 Physical activity policies and practices 94.3 (512) 47.1 (241) 52.9 (271) < 0.0001
 Nutrition and healthy eating policies and practices 90.4 (491) 44.8 (220) 55.2 (271) < 0.0001
 Physical activity on timetable 81.7 (444) 88.6 (241) 74.9 (203) < 0.0001
 School cafeteria 52.8 (287) 73.9 (212) 26.1 (75) < 0.0001
 School shop 34.4 (187) 100. 0 (187) < 0.0001
 Fast food outlets close to school 95.0 (516) 52.7 (272) 47.3 (244) < 0.0001
  1. BMI Body mass index, WHtR waist-to-height ratio, SES socioeconomic status; * for continuous variables, mean (standard deviation), median (25th–75th percentiles) are reported and percent (frequency) for categorical variables