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Table 3 Associations between variables regarding ambient air pollutant exposure and health status measured by the COOP/WONCA chart

From: Relationships between perceived health status and ambient air quality parameters in healthy Japanese: a panel study

  Dependent variables (COOP/ WONCA chart items) (0, better; 1, worse)
  Physical fitness Feelings Daily activities Social activities Change in health Overall health Pain Quality of life
Independent variables OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Kumamoto
 Hours spent outdoors (each 1 h) 0.94 0.92–0.97 0.98 0.95–1.01 0.81 0.72–0.91 0.74 0.63–0.86 0.99 0.93–1.05 0.93 0.88–0.99 0.99 0.92–1.06 0.92 0.87–0.98
 Temperature (each 10 °C) 0.93 0.85–1.03 0.97 0.87–1.08 1.06 0.78–1.42 0.95 0.62–1.44 1.01 0.80–1.27 0.87 0.73–1.03 0.82 0.69–0.97 1.02 0.85–1.24
 Relative humidity (each 10%) 1.06 0.98–1.16 0.97 0.88–1.07 1.00 0.76–1.31 0.93 0.64–1.36 0.99 0.79–1.23 0.94 0.80–1.12 1.03 0.90–1.21 0.80 0.66–0.96
 Carbon monoxide (each 10 ppb) 1.00 1.00–1.01 1.00 1.00–1.01 1.00 0.98–1.01 1.01 0.99–1.02 1.00 0.99–1.01 1.01 1.00–1.01 1.01 1.00–1.01 1.00 1.00–1.01
 Nitrogen dioxide (each 10 ppb) 1.13 0.98–1.31 1.03 0.88–1.21 0.83 0.57–1.22 1.12 0.70–1.77 1.16 0.88–1.54 1.36 1.08–1.69 1.21 0.93–1.57 1.26 0.98–1.63
 Oxidants (each 10 ppb) 0.97 0.92–1.01 1.01 0.96–1.06 1.01 0.87–1.17 1.08 0.91–1.28 1.05 0.94–1.17 1.03 0.95–1.12 0.99 0.92–1.07 1.13 1.03–1.23
 Sulfur dioxide (each 10 ppb) 1.09 0.61–1.95 1.27 0.67–2.41 1.71 0.36–7.93 2.30 0.28–18.67 0.90 0.25–3.28 0.85 0.30–2.41 1.07 0.36–3.19 0.75 0.21–2.62
 SPM (each 10 μg/m3) 1.06 0.99–1.14 1.03 0.94–1.12 0.91 0.75–1.10 0.99 0.78–1.24 1.15 0.98–1.34 1.13 1.00–1.28 0.99 0.86–1.15 1.22 1.07–1.38
 PM2.5 (each 10 μg/m3) 1.00 0.89–1.13 1.06 0.92–1.22 0.93 0.67–1.29 1.28 0.82–2.02 1.06 0.82–1.38 1.13 0.92–1.38 1.12 0.92–1.36 1.27 1.02–1.58
 Asian sand dust event (each 1 event in last one month) 0.99 0.97–1.02 1.00 0.96–1.03 0.96 0.86–1.08 0.91 0.78–1.05 1.06 0.99–1.13 1.03 0.98–1.08 0.98 0.93–1.03 1.10 1.03–1.17
Niigata
 Hours spent outdoors (each 1 h) 0.96 0.93–0.98 0.98 0.96–1.01 0.94 0.88–1.00 0.91 0.84–0.99 0.98 0.94–1.02 0.99 0.95–1.03 1.01 0.97–1.05 0.95 0.91–1.00
 Temperature (each 10 °C) 1.01 0.94–1.09 0.94 0.87–1.01 1.02 0.83–1.26 1.00 0.74–1.34 1.18 0.98–1.41 1.17 1.02–1.34 0.93 0.83–1.06 1.20 1.03–1.38
 Relative humidity (each 10%) 1.09 0.95–1.27 0.93 0.80–1.09 0.90 0.61–1.32 1.44 0.73–2.84 0.84 0.59–1.21 0.99 0.69–1.16 1.08 0.83–1.44 0.80 0.60–1.07
 Carbon monoxide (each 10 ppb) 1.00 0.99–1.02 1.00 0.99–1.02 1.02 0.97–1.07 1.02 0.95–1.08 0.99 0.96–1.03 1.00 0.97–1.02 1.00 0.98–1.03 1.00 0.97–1.04
 Nitrogen dioxide (each 10 ppb) 0.96 0.77–1.20 0.94 0.76–1.17 1.22 0.75–1.97 0.77 0.34–1.74 0.93 0.62–1.40 0.90 0.63–1.28 0.99 0.70–1.40 1.02 0.71–1.49
 Oxidants (each 10 ppb) 0.98 0.93–1.03 1.03 0.97–1.08 1.04 0.90–1.20 0.88 0.70–1.10 1.06 0.93–1.20 1.06 0.97–1.16 0.98 0.90–1.08 1.05 0.95–1.17
 Sulfur dioxide (each 10 ppb) 0.72 0.12–4.12 0.33 0.07–1.61 0.09 0.00–7.36 0.13 0.00–67.14 1.26 0.04–42.23 2.59 0.16–41.08 0.33 0.01–20.71 0.60 0.03–10.49
 SPM (each 10 μg/m3) 1.05 0.94–1.16 0.91 0.82–1.01 1.16 0.89–1.52 1.37 0.95–1.99 1.22 0.96–1.54 1.20 1.01–1.40 0.99 0.84–1.17 1.24 1.04–1.49
 PM2.5 (each 10 μg/m3) 1.03 0.85–1.23 0.97 0.80–1.17 0.78 0.48–1.27 0.86 0.41–1.81 1.09 0.71–1.68 1.32 0.97–1.79 0.97 0.71–1.34 1.36 0.98–1.89
 Asian sand dust event (each 1 event in last one month) 0.98 0.92–1.04 0.98 0.92–1.05 0.91 0.75–1.10 1.06 0.85–1.33 1.02 0.89–1.18 0.95 0.84–1.06 1.01 0.91–1.12 0.98 0.86–1.11
  1. ORs were adjusted by year of survey, gender, age, body mass index (kg/m2), smoking status (current, former, or never smoker), working status (active worker or retired/ not in employment)
  2. CI, confidence interval; ppb, part per billion; SPM, Suspended particulate matter; PM2.5, Particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter