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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Relationships between perceived health status and ambient air quality parameters in healthy Japanese: a panel study

 

February

May

July

 

Kumamoto

Niigata

Kumamoto

Niigata

Kumamoto

Niigata

N

1537

1350

1101

1119

905

987

 

100%

100%

71.6% v. Feb

82.9% v. Feb

58.9% v. Feb

73.1% v. Feb

Year of survey

N

 

N

 

N

v. Feb

N

v. Feb

N

v. Feb

N

v. Feb

 2010

186

12.1%

121

65.1%

104

55.9%

 2011

212

13.8%

198

14.7%

159

75.0%

152

76.8%

140

66.0%

132

66.7%

 2012

306

19.9%

299

22.1%

234

76.5%

225

75.3%

196

64.1%

192

64.2%

 2013

287

18.7%

243

18.0%

197

68.6%

212

87.2%

163

56.8%

191

78.6%

 2014

274

17.8%

305

22.6%

202

73.7%

266

87.2%

155

56.6%

230

75.4%

 2015

272

17.7%

305

22.6%

188

69.1%

264

86.6%

147

54.0%

242

79.3%

Age

 years old (mean ± SD)

64.4 ± 9.8

59.1 ± 6.2

65.9 ± 9.5

59.5 ± 6.1

66.7 ± 9.5

59.7 ± 6.1

Gender

N

 

N

 

N

 

N

 

N

 

N

 

 Male

1089

70.9%

939

69.6%

798

72.5%

771

68.9%

663

73.3%

674

68.3%

 Female

448

29.2%

411

30.4%

303

27.5%

348

31.1%

242

26.7%

313

31.7%

Body mass index

 kg/m2 (mean ± SD)

23.6 ± 3.1

23.2 ± 3.1

23.4 ± 2.9

23.1 ± 3.0

23.3 ± 2.9

23.0 ± 3.0

Smoking status

N

 

N

 

N

 

N

 

N

 

N

 

 Current smoker

210

13.7%

312

23.1%

121

11.0%

232

20.7%

89

9.8%

192

19.5%

 Former smoker

561

36.5%

481

35.6%

430

39.1%

422

37.7%

364

40.2%

367

37.2%

 Never smoker

766

49.8%

557

41.3%

550

50.0%

465

41.6%

452

49.9%

428

43.4%

Working status

N

 

N

 

N

 

N

 

N

 

N

 

 Active worker

951

63.6%

1169

86.9%

608

56.1%

939

84.1%

463

52.0%

820

83.3%

 Retired/ Not in employment

544

36.4%

177

13.2%

476

43.9%

178

15.9%

428

48.0%

165

16.8%

Time spent outdoors

 Hours

4.0 ± 3.2

4.7 ± 4.2

4.2 ± 3.2

4.1 ± 3.6

4.0 ± 3.1

3.9 ± 3.4

Prevalence of respiratory symptoms

 1. Weather affects cough

88

5.8%

86

6.4%

76

7.1%

66

6.0%

37

4.2%

59

6.1%

 2. Sputum production without a cold

391

25.5%

397

29.5%

303

28.4%

320

28.9%

222

25.0%

253

26.0%

 3. Sputum production in early morning

258

16.9%

213

15.8%

193

18.1%

172

15.6%

142

16.0%

160

16.6%

 4. Frequent wheezes

123

8.0%

108

8.0%

89

8.3%

91

8.3%

54

6.1%

70

7.2%

 5. Allergy

307

20.0%

232

17.3%

239

22.1%

239

21.6%

145

16.3%

164

16.9%

Monitoring station

 Number of stations

26

23

        

Distance from each residence

 Median (Min. – Max.) (km)

3.70 (0.06–33.43)

3.31 (0.10–30.88)