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Table 3 Percentage of sleep disturbances (poor sleepers) in different age stages, levels of education, marital status and regions among overall participants, nonsmokers, and cigarette smokers

From: Sleep quality in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers: findings from the general population in central China

Variables insomnia (PSQI > 5), %  
Overall nonsmokers smokers p*
Age (yrs)
 12–17, % 15.4% 14.6% 33.3% < 0.001
 18–29, % 24.7% 23.3% 30.0% < 0.001
 30–39, % 23.6% 21.4% 30.3% < 0.001
 40–49, % 25.0% 23.5% 28.2% < 0.001
 50–59, % 31.8% 30.0% 35.1% 0.011
 ≥60, % 45.2% 43.4% 49.5% 0.003
Education (yrs)
 Illiteracy or Primary school% 32.6% 31.4% 35.9% 0.003
 Middle school% 22.4% 20.3% 28.6% < 0.001
 High school% 27.0% 24.4% 34.3% 0.011
 University% 26.6% 24.6% 33.5% 0.003
Marital status
 Married % 26.0% 25.0% 31.2% < 0.001
 First marriage% 26.7% 25.0% 31.0%
 Re-married % 39.6% 35.5% 46.4%
 Unmarried % 26.6% 24.1% 37.7% < 0.001
 Never married% 22.0% 20.1% 32.5%
 Divorced % 38.5% 39.6% 41.9%
 Widowed % 54.2% 53.0% 57.5%
 Separated % 35.8% 32.9% 42.0%
Regions
 Rural region% 29.4% 27.3% 34.6% < 0.001
 Urban region % 25.5% 23.5% 31.6% < 0.001
 Provincial capital city% 27.0% 25.1% 33.5%
 Prefecture-level city% 23.5% 21.3% 30.0%
 County-level city% 25.9% 23.9% 31.3%
 Small town% 24.8% 22.9% 30.7%
  1. %: the percentage of subjects. PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
  2. * Significant difference between groups of nonsmokers and smokers, p < 0.01
  3. Percentage differences were analyzed between nonsmokers and smokers by the Chi-squared test