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Table 3 Description of variables, measures, and instruments

From: The Food4toddlers study - study protocol for a web-based intervention to promote healthy diets for toddlers: a randomized controlled trial

Variable Purpose of measure Variable (Categorical/continuous) Measure Instrument When to collect
PRIMARY OUTCOME
 Child’s diet PSO, IC Overall diet Food Variety (Continuous) Food intake (core-and non-core foods) Healthy eating index FFQ based on nationwide Norwegian diet survey among 12-month-old children [12] and the MoBa-study [55] At baseline, 18, 24, and 48 months
SECONDARY OUTCOME
Eating environment
 Child level: food preferences SSO, IC Food neophobia (Continuous) Rating the child’s willingness to try new foods The food neophobia scale [61] At baseline, 18, 24, and 48 months
 Parental level: feeding practices SSO, IC Feeding style and feeding practices (Categorical) Under−/over-eating, hunger, infant cues. Feeding attitudes, practices, perceptions or concerns about weight Comprehensive feeding practices [62, 63]
  SSO, IC Food neophobia (Continuous) Rating the parent’s willingness to try new foods The food neophobia scale [61]
  SSO, IC Self-efficacy (Categorical) Parental self-efficacy in eating situations Feeding self-efficacy [64]
 Family level: meal setting SSO, IC Frequency of shared meals (Categorical) Frequency of meals and meal distractions Questionnaires from the nationwide Norwegian diet survey among 12-month-old children [12] and items developed for this study
Food environment
 Macro-level: grocery shopping SSO, IC Food choice and awareness of food environment (Categorical) Planning, grocery shopping, what influences food choice FCQ [65] SCQ: some elements made for this study, are based on theory of Wansink [51], and additional items developed for this study At baseline, 18, 24, and 48 months
 Micro-level: Home SSO, IC Availability and accessibility of food (Categorical) Availability and accessibility of non-core and core foods
Food preparation and planning
Questions developed for this study and items from Helland and colleagues [66]
  SSO, IC Meal management and food coping strategies
(Categorical)
Self-efficacy related to meal management and food coping strategies Meal management and food coping strategies questionnaire [67]
OTHER
 Child anthropometrics SSO Anthropometric outcome (Continuous) Height and weight Self-reported, but measured at scheduled health center visits At baseline, 18, 24, and 48 months
 Parental characteristics SC Height and weight Demographics Socioeconomic status Food behaviors Height and weight Education, occupation and food intake Self-reported on questionnaire and simple FFQ [12]
 Website use IC Use of website by the intervention group Usefulness and usability Questions developed for this study, but include elements from Helle and colleagues [58] At 18 months (intervention group)
  1. Abbreviations: PSO primary study outcome, SSO secondary study outcome, IC intervention component, SC study covariate, FFQ food frequency questionnaire, FCQ food choice questionnaire, SCQ shopping choice questionnaire