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Table 3 Multilevel models for moderate- to- vigorous-intensity physical activity with unstandardised and standardised fixed effects at individual- and country-level (N = 138,014)

From: Do country-level environmental factors explain cross-national variation in adolescent physical activity? A multilevel study in 29 European countries

   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
   b (SE) p β b (SE) p β b (SE) p β
Fixed effects (individual -level) Intercept 6.096 (0.196) < .001   5.649 (1.505) < .001   6.081 (0.357) < .001  
Gender a 0.619 (0.037) < .001 .16 0.619 (0.037) < .001 .16 0.619 (0.037) < .001 .16
Age −0.167 (0.012) < .001 −.14 −0.167 (0.012) < .001 −.14 −0.167 (0.012) < .001 −.14
Fixed effects (country-level) Ntl. temperature     −0.039 (0.015) .010 −.39 −0.036 (0.017) .032 −.37
Urbanisation     0.001 (0.007) .923 .03    
Adult PA     0.001 (0.007) .867 .03    
Safety     0.016 (0.007) .017 .54 0.014 (0.004) .001 .49
Ntl. income     −0.029 (0.016) .072 −.46 −0.031 (0.009) .001 −.49
Income inequality     0.006 (0.019) .732 .08    
PE policy     −0.003 (0.002) .070 −.25 −0.003 (0.001) .024 −.25
Transport policy     −0.039 (0.138) .778 −.06    
Variance components Individual-level 3.776 (0.057) < .001   3.776 (0.057) < .001   3.776 (0.057) < .001  
School-level 0.137 (0.013) < .001   0.137 (0.013) < .001   0.137 (0.014) < .001  
Country-level b 0.106 (0.026) < .001   0.066 (0.014) < .001   0.066 (0.015) < .001  
  1. Ntl. National, PA Physical Activity, PE Physical Education, National income divided by 1000 for interpretability of b values
  2. aFemale is reference group.
  3. bExplained country-level variance = (106–.066)/.106 = .38
  4. p<.05 are set in bold