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Table 2 Sociodemographic characteristic based on socioeconomic status [Present as mean ± SD or n(%)]

From: Factors associated with poor socioeconomic status among Malaysian older adults: an analysis according to urban and rural settings

  Low SES (n = 753) ModerateSES (n = 739) HighSES (n = 745) Total (N = 2237)
Age, years (Mean ± SD) 70.5 ± 6.4 68.5 ± 6.1 68.0 ± 5.8 69.0 ± 6.2**
Gender
 Women 454 (60.3) 357 (48.3) 341 (45.8) 1152 (51.5)***
 Men 299 (39.7) 382 (51.7) 404 (54.2) 1085 (48.5)
Education years (Mean ± SD) 3.3 ± 3.1 5.1 ± 3.5 7.2 ± 4.3 5.2 ± 4.0***
Residing Location
 Urban 320 (42.5) 366 (49.5) 420 (56.4) 1106 (49.4)***
 Rural 433 (57.5) 373 (50.5) 325 (43.6) 1131 (50.6)
Marital Status
 Single 16 (2.1) 13 (1.8) 7 (0.9) 36 (1.6)***
 Married 442 (58.7) 531 (71.9) 564 (75.7) 1537 (68.7)
 Divorced 19 (2.5) 17 (2.3) 3 (0.4) 39 (1.7)
 Widow/Widower 276 (36.7) 178 (24.1) 171 (23.0) 625 (27.9)
Ethnicity
 Malay 478 (63.5) 451 (61.0) 481 (64.6) 1410 (63.0)**
 Chinese 253 (33.6) 248 (33.6) 213 (28.6) 714 (31.9)
 Indian 21 (2.8) 39 (5.3) 48 (6.4) 108 (4.8)
 Others 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 3 (0.4) 5 (0.2)
Smoking habit
 Yes 144 (19.1) 137 (18.5) 106 (14.2) 387 (17.3)*
 No 609 (80.9) 602 (81.5) 639 (85.8) 1850 (82.7)
Living Arrangement
 Alone 125 (16.6) 72 (9.7) 40 (5.4) 237 (10.6)***
 With others 628 (83.4) 667 (90.3) 705 (94.6) 2000 (89.4)
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01;***p < 0.001