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Table 1 Employee characteristics by income group (N = 5235)

From: Anteceding factors predicting absenteeism and presenteeism in urban area in Malaysia

Employee Characteristics < RM4000 RM4000 - RM7999 >RM8000 Overall
Age, years 1856 (35.4%) 1548 (29.6%) 1831 (35.0%) 5235 (100%)
Mean (SD) 27.9 (6.0) 34.7 (7.6) 39.0 (8.5) 33.8 (8.8)
Median (IQR) 26 (6) 33 (10) 38 (12) 32 (12)***
(Min, Max) (18, 59) (21, 85) (19, 67) (18, 85)
Age years, No. (%)
 Age 18 to 24 609 (32.8) 41 (2.6) 54 (.03) 704 (13.5)***
 Age 25 to 34 1004 (54.1) 840 (54.3) 545 (29.8) 2389 (45.6)
 Age 35 to 44 197 (10.6) 496 (32.0) 770 (42.0) 1463 (28.0)
 Age 45 to 54 43 (2.3) 136 (8.8) 367 (20.0) 546 (10.4)
 Age 55 to 64 3 (0.2) 33 (2.1) 93 (5.1) 129 (2.5)
 Age 65 above 0 (0.0) 2 (0.1) 2 (0.1) 4 (0.0)
Gender, No. (%)
 Male 592 (31.9) 572 (37.0) 812 (44.4) 1976 (37.8) ***
 Female 1264 (68.1) 976 (63.0) 1019 (56.7) 3259 (62.3)
Ethnicity, No. (%)
 Malay 896 (48.3) 530 (34.2) 409 (22.3) 1835 (35.1) ***
 Chinese 551 (29.7) 733 (47.4) 1066 (58.2) 2350 (44.9)
 Indian 341 (18.4) 249 (16.1) 300 (16.4) 890 (17.0)
 Others 68 (3.7) 36 (2.3) 56 (3.1) 160 (3.1)
Marital Status, No. (%)
 Single 1237 (66.7) 631 (40.8) 504 (27.5) 2372 (45.3) ***
 Married 557 (30.0) 838 (54.1) 1177 (64.3) 2572 (49.1)
 Separated/Divorced/Widowed 29 (1.6) 50 (3.2) 53 (2.9) 132 (2.5)
 Prefer not to say 33 (1.8) 29 (1.9) 97 (5.3) 159 (3.0)
Education, No. (%)
 Less than University 558 (30.1) 418 (27.0) 363 (19.8) 1339 (25.6) ***
 University degree or higher 1298 (69.9) 1130 (73.0) 1468 (80.2) 3896 (74.4)
Occupation, No. (%)
 Manager 113 (7.2) 513 (33.1) 962 (52.5) 1608 (30.7) ***
 Professional 554 (29.8) 515 (33.2) 527 (28.8) 1596 (30.5)
 Technician or junior professional 402 (21.7) 232 (15) 87 (4.8) 721 (13.8)
 Clerical support worker 427 (23.0) 133 (8.6) 56 (3.1) 616 (1.8)
 Service worker 64 (3.5) 24 (1.6) 8 (0.4) 96 (1.8)
 Sales worker 125 (6.7) 54 (3.5) 23 (1.3) 202 (3.9)
 Skilled worker 4 (0.2) 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 7 (0.1)
Financial Concern, No. (%)
 Don’t know 147 (7.9) 75 (5) 167 (9) 389 (7.4)
 Yes, a little 589 (31.7) 509 (32.9) 801 (43.7) 1899 (36.3) ***
 Yes, a lot 806 (43.4) 722 (46.6) 752 (41.1) 2280 (43.5)
 No 461 (25.9) 317 (20.5) 278 (15.2) 1056 (20.2)
Employment Length, years
 Number 1856 1548 1831 5235
 Mean (SD) 3.5 (4.5) 7.2 (7.0) 8.0 (8.0) 6.2 (6.9)
 Median (IQR) 2 (3) 5 (8) 5 (9) 4 (7) ***
 (Min, Max) (0, 34) (0, 40) (0, 40) (0, 40)
Work Irregular Hours, No. (%)
 Yes 496 (26.7) 303 (19.6) 304 (16.6) 1103 (21.1)
Job Satisfaction, No. (%)
 Agree 1223 (65.9) 1076 (69.5) 1306 (71.3) 3605 (68.9)**
 Neither agree nor disagree 310 (16.7) 243 (15.7) 286 (15.6) 839 (16.0)
 Disagree 323 (17.4) 229 (14.8) 239 (13.1) 791 (15.1)
Physical Health, No. (%)
 Very good 254 (13.7) 191 (12.3) 203 (11.1) 648 (12.4)
 Good 1010 (54.4) 840 (54.3) 1007 (55.0) 2857 (54.5)
 Fair 523 (28.2) 457 (29.5) 568 (31.0) 1548 (29.6)
 Poor 65 (3.5) 57 (3.7) 45 (2.5) 167 (3.2)
 Very poor 4 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 8 (0.4) 15 (0.3)
Mental Health, No. (%)
 Very good 370 (19.9) 288 (18.6) 352 (19.2) 1010 (19.3)*
 Good 941 (50.7) 838 (54.1) 1024 (55.9) 2803 (53.5)
 Fair 444 (23.9) 353 (22.8) 395 (21.6) 1192 (22.8)
 Poor 87 (4.7) 59 (3.8) 49 (2.7) 195 (3.7)
 Very poor 14 (0.8) 10 (0.7) 11 (0.6) 35 (0.7)
Sleep length, hours
 Mean (SD) 6.5 (1.2) 6.4 (1.1) 6.4 (1.0) 6.4 (1.1)
 Median (IQR) 6 (1) 6 (1) 6 (1) 6 (1) ***
 (Min, Max) (1, 12) (3, 24) (2, 15) (1, 24)
Health Condition Kidney Disease, No. (%)
 Yes 4 (0.2) 12 (0.8) 12 (0.7) 28 (0.5)
Health Condition Diabetes, No. (%)
 Yes 23 (1.2) 37 (2.4) 46 (2.5) 106 (2.0)*
Health Condition Migraines, No. (%)
 Yes 243 (13.1) 186 (12.0) 233 (12.7) 662 (13.7)
Unwell Due to Work Stress, No. (%)
 Yes, definitely 291 (15.7) 233 (15.0) 216 (11.8) 740 (14.1) ***
 Yes, to some extent 981 (52.8) 763 (49.3) 823 (44.9) 2567 (49.1)
 No 584 (31.5) 552 (35.7) 792 (43.3) 1928 (37.8)
  1. *P < 0.05. **P < 0.01. ***P < 0.001