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Table 6 Prevalence of hypertension (HPN), hypercholesterolemia (HPC) and diabetes mellitus (DM) by nutritional status of respondents

From: Non-communicable diseases among low income adults in rural coastal communities in Eastern Sabah, Malaysia

Risk factors Hypertension, N (row %) Chi-square/ p-value Hypercholesterolemia, N (row %) Chi-square/ p-value Diabetes Mellitus, N (row %) Chi-square/ p-value
HPN (n = 108) Non-HPN (n = 222) HPC (n = 140) Non-HPC (n = 190) DM (n = 24) Non-DM (n = 306)
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Body Mass Index (BMI) 29.426/   29.120/   20.015/
 Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 2 (5.9) 32 (94.1) < 0.001 6 (17.6) 28 (82.4) < 0.001 0 (0.0) 34 (100.0) < 0.001
 Normal (18.5–22.9 kg/m2) 18 (19.8) 73 (80.2) 24 (26.4) 67 (73.6) 0 (0.0) 91 (100.0)
 Overweight (23–27.4 kg/m2) 39 (38.6) 62 (61.4) 52 (51.5) 49 (48.5) 8 (7.9) 93 (92.1)
 Obese (≥27.5 kg/m2) 49 (47.1) 55 (52.9) 58 (55.8) 46 (44.2) 16 (15.4) 88 (84.6)
Body Fat (BF) 39.055/< 0.001   34.919/   21.404/< 0.001
 Low BF 1 (2.6) 38 (97.4) 4 (10.3) 35 (89.7) < 0.001 0 (0.0) 39 (100.0)
 Normal BF 33 (24.3) 103 (75.7) 48 (35.3) 88 (64.7) 3 (2.2) 133 (97.8)
 Moderate BF 49 (44.5) 61 (55.5) 59 (53.6) 51 (46.4) 13 (11.8) 97 (88.2)
 High BF 25 (56.8) 19 (43.2) 29 (65.9) 15 (34.1) 8 (18.2) 36 (81.8)
Waist Circumference (WC) 22.936/< 0.001   25.991/   16.401/< 0.001
 Positive abdominal obesity (Men: ≥90 cm; Women: ≥80 cm) 86 (42.6) 116 (57.4) 108 (53.5) 94 (46.5) < 0.001 24 (11.9) 178 (88.1)
 Normal WC (Men: < 90 cm; Women: < 80 cm) 22 (17.2) 106 (82.8) 32 (25.0) 96 (75.0) 0 (0.0) 128 (100.0)