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Table 1 Patient characteristics and pathogens associated with fatality in children aged < 2 years hospitalized with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in Guatemala from September 2007 through December 2013 (N = 4109)

From: Factors associated with fatal cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI) among hospitalized patients in Guatemala

Variable Fatal (%) (n = 174) Non-fatal (%) (n = 3935) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age at admission in months, median (IQR) 4 (2–9) 6 (2–11) 1.0 (0.9–1.0)
Male sex 105/174 (60) 2280/3935 (58) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
Family monthly income <Q1000 123/174 (71) 2015/3935 (51) 2.2 (1.7–3.2) 2.2 (1.4–3.6)
Amerindian Indigenous 61/174 (35) 1227/3935 (31) 1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Hospital Site
 Santa Rosa 91/174 (52) 1561/3935 (40) Reference  
 Quetzaltenango 72/174 (41) 1484/3935 (38) 0.8 (0.6–1.1)
 Guatemala City 11/174 (6) 890/3935 (23) 0.2 (0.1–0.4)
High crowding index (> 3 persons/room) 88/174 (51) 1900/3935 (48) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
Parent completed primary school 72/173 (42) 2114/3919 (54) 0.6 (0.4–0.8)
A person in the household smokes 31/171 (18) 797/3898 (20) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
Breastfed in first 2 years of life 72/172 (42) 2101/3924 (54) 0.6 (0.5–0.9) 0.6 (0.4–0.9)
Sought care prior to hospitalization 121/173 (70) 2570/3879 (66) 1.2 (0.9–1.7)
Received ≥1 dose of DPt/Hib, Hep B vaccinea 73/137 (53) 2231/3312 (67) 0.6 (0.4–0.8)
Received influenza vaccine in past 6 months, n (%) 2/127 (2) 76/2837 (3) 0.6 (0.1–1.9)
Low weight-for-age Z score (<−2 SD), n (%) 149/174 (86) 1563/3935 (40) 9.0 (6.0–14.2) 7.0 (4.1–12.8)
Medical history
 Any chronic disease 26/170 (15) 219/3857 (6) 3.0 (1.9–4.6)
 Heart disease 19/165 (12) 108/3859 (3) 4.5 (2.6–7.4) 3.0 (1.2–6.8)
 Asthma 2/169 (1) 57/3879 (1) 0.8 (0.1–2.6)
 Chronic pulmonary disease 2/166 (1) 24/3855 (1) 1.9 (0.3–6.6)
 Diabetes 0/167 (0) 3/3870 (0.1)
 Cancer 0/166 (0) 1/3861 (0.03)
 Liver disease 0/166 (0) 5/3852 (0.1)
 Kidney disease 0/166 (0) 7/3856 (0.2)
 HIV 0/159 (0) 3/3809 (0.1)
Prematurity 48/168 (29) 1049/3872 (27) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
Endpoint pneumonia 49/104 (47) 562/2197 (26) 2.6 (1.7–3.9) 2.5 (1.6–3.8)
Pathogens detected by NP/OP swab
 NP/OP swab tested 169/169 (100) 3780/3781 (99)   
 Any viral detectionb 90/169 (53) 2609/3780 (69) 0.5 (0.4–0.7)
 Respiratory syncytial virusb 50/169 (30) 1632/3780 (43) 0.6 (0.4–0.8) 0.5 (0.3–0.8)
 Adenovirusb 23/169 (14) 399/3780 (11) 1.3 (0.8–2.0)
 Parainfluenza 1/2/3b 14/169 (8) 445/3780 (12) 1.9 (1.0–3.9)
 Influenza Ab 14/169 (8) 179/3780 (5) 1.8 (1.0–3.1)
 Human metapneumovirusb 9/169 (5) 357/3780 (9) 0.5 (0.3–1.0)
 Influenza Bb 1/169 (0.6) 40/3780 (1) 0.6 (0.03–2.6)
Pathogens detected by blood culture
 Blood culture performed 57/174 (33) 805/3935 (20)   
 Evidence of contaminationb 4/57 (7) 84/805 (10) 0.6 (0.2–1.6)
 Any growthb 13/57 (23) 173/805 (21) 1.1 (0.5–2.0)
Streptococcus pneumoniaeb 0/57 (0) 0/805 (0)
Pseudomonas aeruginosab 0/57 (0) 3/805 (0.4)
Staphylococcus aureusb 0 (0) 21/805 (3)
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range
  2. a0/29 patients aged < 2 months with fatal cases and 39/674 patients aged < 2 months with non-fatal cases were vaccinated, although they were not yet age-eligible to receive DPt/Hib, Hep B vaccine
  3. bAmong those tested