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Table 1 Patient characteristics and pathogens associated with fatality in children aged < 2 years hospitalized with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in Guatemala from September 2007 through December 2013 (N = 4109)

From: Factors associated with fatal cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI) among hospitalized patients in Guatemala

Variable

Fatal (%) (n = 174)

Non-fatal (%) (n = 3935)

Crude OR (95% CI)

Adjusted OR (95% CI)

Age at admission in months, median (IQR)

4 (2–9)

6 (2–11)

1.0 (0.9–1.0)

Male sex

105/174 (60)

2280/3935 (58)

1.1 (0.8–1.5)

Family monthly income <Q1000

123/174 (71)

2015/3935 (51)

2.2 (1.7–3.2)

2.2 (1.4–3.6)

Amerindian Indigenous

61/174 (35)

1227/3935 (31)

1.2 (0.9–1.6)

Hospital Site

 Santa Rosa

91/174 (52)

1561/3935 (40)

Reference

 

 Quetzaltenango

72/174 (41)

1484/3935 (38)

0.8 (0.6–1.1)

 Guatemala City

11/174 (6)

890/3935 (23)

0.2 (0.1–0.4)

High crowding index (> 3 persons/room)

88/174 (51)

1900/3935 (48)

1.1 (0.8–1.5)

Parent completed primary school

72/173 (42)

2114/3919 (54)

0.6 (0.4–0.8)

A person in the household smokes

31/171 (18)

797/3898 (20)

0.9 (0.6–1.3)

Breastfed in first 2 years of life

72/172 (42)

2101/3924 (54)

0.6 (0.5–0.9)

0.6 (0.4–0.9)

Sought care prior to hospitalization

121/173 (70)

2570/3879 (66)

1.2 (0.9–1.7)

Received ≥1 dose of DPt/Hib, Hep B vaccinea

73/137 (53)

2231/3312 (67)

0.6 (0.4–0.8)

Received influenza vaccine in past 6 months, n (%)

2/127 (2)

76/2837 (3)

0.6 (0.1–1.9)

Low weight-for-age Z score (<−2 SD), n (%)

149/174 (86)

1563/3935 (40)

9.0 (6.0–14.2)

7.0 (4.1–12.8)

Medical history

 Any chronic disease

26/170 (15)

219/3857 (6)

3.0 (1.9–4.6)

 Heart disease

19/165 (12)

108/3859 (3)

4.5 (2.6–7.4)

3.0 (1.2–6.8)

 Asthma

2/169 (1)

57/3879 (1)

0.8 (0.1–2.6)

 Chronic pulmonary disease

2/166 (1)

24/3855 (1)

1.9 (0.3–6.6)

 Diabetes

0/167 (0)

3/3870 (0.1)

 Cancer

0/166 (0)

1/3861 (0.03)

 Liver disease

0/166 (0)

5/3852 (0.1)

 Kidney disease

0/166 (0)

7/3856 (0.2)

 HIV

0/159 (0)

3/3809 (0.1)

Prematurity

48/168 (29)

1049/3872 (27)

1.1 (0.8–1.5)

Endpoint pneumonia

49/104 (47)

562/2197 (26)

2.6 (1.7–3.9)

2.5 (1.6–3.8)

Pathogens detected by NP/OP swab

 NP/OP swab tested

169/169 (100)

3780/3781 (99)

  

 Any viral detectionb

90/169 (53)

2609/3780 (69)

0.5 (0.4–0.7)

 Respiratory syncytial virusb

50/169 (30)

1632/3780 (43)

0.6 (0.4–0.8)

0.5 (0.3–0.8)

 Adenovirusb

23/169 (14)

399/3780 (11)

1.3 (0.8–2.0)

 Parainfluenza 1/2/3b

14/169 (8)

445/3780 (12)

1.9 (1.0–3.9)

 Influenza Ab

14/169 (8)

179/3780 (5)

1.8 (1.0–3.1)

 Human metapneumovirusb

9/169 (5)

357/3780 (9)

0.5 (0.3–1.0)

 Influenza Bb

1/169 (0.6)

40/3780 (1)

0.6 (0.03–2.6)

Pathogens detected by blood culture

 Blood culture performed

57/174 (33)

805/3935 (20)

  

 Evidence of contaminationb

4/57 (7)

84/805 (10)

0.6 (0.2–1.6)

 Any growthb

13/57 (23)

173/805 (21)

1.1 (0.5–2.0)

Streptococcus pneumoniaeb

0/57 (0)

0/805 (0)

Pseudomonas aeruginosab

0/57 (0)

3/805 (0.4)

Staphylococcus aureusb

0 (0)

21/805 (3)

  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range
  2. a0/29 patients aged < 2 months with fatal cases and 39/674 patients aged < 2 months with non-fatal cases were vaccinated, although they were not yet age-eligible to receive DPt/Hib, Hep B vaccine
  3. bAmong those tested