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Table 1 Characteristics of older adults in SAGE participant countries, 2007–2010, by major depressive episode (MDE) during the past 12 months

From: Religious affiliation and major depressive episode in older adults: a cross-sectional study in six low- and middle- income countries

Variable Men p-valuea Women p-valuea
MDE (n = 491) No MDE (n = 8584) MDE (n = 790) No MDE (n = 9816)
Sociodemographic
Age
 60–69 55.3 56.8 0.88 49.5 52.7 0.46
 70–79 35.3 34.7 37.6 36.6
  ≥ 80 9.4 8.5 12.9 10.7
 Living with a partner 85.3 86.3 0.77 47.3 57.0 < 0.01
Educational attainment
 None 48.4 22.8 < 0.01 70.9 48.6 < 0.01
 Elementary 31.7 40.1 17.2 27.8
 Secondary 17.3 29.7 10.5 20.4
 College or higher 2.7 7.3 1.4 3.4
 Having health insurance coverage 19.6 66.7 < 0.01 21.8 65.6 < 0.01
Household wealth (terciles)
 1 (lower) 46.6 31.9 < 0.01 44.0 34.8 0.01
 2 36.0 35.0 31.4 35.2
 3 (higher) 17.4 33.1 24.6 30.0
Zone
 Urban 30.3 42.7 < 0.01 33.1 44.8 < 0.01
 Rural 69.7 57.3 66.9 55.2
Health-related
Multimorbidity
 None 37.6 48.3 0.04 40.5 41.7 0.16
 One 32.2 29.4 27.0 31.0
 Two or more 30.2 22.2 32.5 27.3
 Physical disability 77.6 27.1 < 0.01 85.2 38.5 < 0.01
Social networks
 Not living alone 94.1 92.1 0.35 89.1 82.8 < 0.01
 Participation in non-religious social activities 17.6 26.3 < 0.01 8.4 16.6 < 0.01
 Having someone to trust 86.0 93.3 < 0.01 74.7 88.1 < 0.01
Religious affiliation
Affiliation
 None 13.3 63.8 < 0.01 14.0 54.6 < 0.01
 Buddhist 4.6 2.1 1.9 4.7
 Christian 4.0 6.0 8.8 12.6
 Hindu 59.2 23.9 64.6 23.8
 Muslim 17.8 3.7 9.0 3.6
 Other 1.1 0.6 1.9 0.8
  1. ap-value for the difference between the groups with and without major depressive episode (MDE)