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Table 2 Univariate correlations between the proportion of levofloxacin-resistant Esherichia coli and selected variables in Japan, 2015–2016

From: Fluoroquinolone consumption and Escherichia coli resistance in Japan: an ecological study

Variable Proportion resistant in 2015 Proportion resistant in 2016
Coefficient p value Coefficient p value
Fluoroquinolone consumption (DID) 0.50 < 0.01 0.52 < 0.01
Number of physicians per 100,000 individuals 0.49 < 0.01 0.42 < 0.01
Number of nurses per 100,000 individuals 0.36 0.01 0.31 0.03
Number of hospitals per 100,000 individualsa 0.34 0.02 0.32 0.03
Number of clinics per 100,000 individuals 0.43 < 0.01 0.41 < 0.01
Number of nursing homes per 100,000 individuals −0.04 0.80 −0.17 0.26
Number of medical facilities included in surveillancea −0.03 0.84 0.05 0.72
Proportion of medical facilities with 500 or more beds (%)a −0.10 0.52 −0.02 0.88
Average length of hospital stay (days) 0.27 0.07 0.29 0.05
Proportion of elderly in the population (%) 0.04 0.79 −0.04 0.79
  1. DID Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day. aIndicates log-transformed data