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Table 3 Overall costs (US$d), including direct and indirect costs, related to influenza-associated illness among outpatients in Kenya, July 2013–August 2014

From: The cost of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Kenya

Expenditure item < 5 years ≥5 years Total
n Mean (SD) Range (min-max) n Mean (SD) Range (min-max) n Mean (SD) Range (min-max)
Direct cost 100 8.62 (6.15) 3.23–33.00 55 5.97 (4.07) 3.23–23.23 155 7.68 (5.63) 3.23–33.00
Healthcare prior to hospital/clinic visit 110 2.04 (4.67) 0.00–27.78 58 0.17 (0.82) 0.00–5.56 168 1.39 (3.90) 0.00–27.78
Total facility-based medical costs 108 4.30 (1.27) 3.23–9.67 57 4.43 (1.36) 3.23–8.89 165 4.34 (1.30) 3.23–9.67
 Medications 108 0.96 (1.11) 0.13–5.77 57 1.10 (1.20) 0.04–5.11 165 1.01 (1.14) 0.04–5.77
 Hospital bed fees NA NA NA NA NA NA
 Procedure fees (non−/surgical) 108 0.00 (0.00) 0.00–0.00 57 0.00 (0.00) 0.00–0.00 165 0.00 (0.00) 0.00–0.00
 Diagnostic tests 108 0.11 (0.51) 0.00–5.00 57 0.11 (0.24) 0.00–1.11 165 0.11 (0.43) 0.00–5.00
 Routine health facility service management costa 108 3.23 (0.00)e 3.23–3.23 57 3.23 (0.00)e 3.23–3.23 165 3.23 (0.00)e 3.23–3.23
Total transportation costs 112 0.48 (0.83) 0.00–4.44 58 0.25 (0.94) 0.00–5.11 170 0.40 (0.87) 0.00–5.11
 Personal car/taxi 1 NE NE 0 NE NE 1 NE NE
 Matatu/bus 42 3.91 (8.42) 0.44–41.67 6 8.24 (9.52) 0.22–23.33 48 4.45 (8.58) 0.22–41.67
 Motorbike/bike/tuktuk 17 2.59 (1.95) 0.89–6.67 5 3.33 (1.96) 1.67–6.67 22 2.76 (1.93) 0.89–6.67
Healthcare after discharge 112 2.46 (4.77) 0.00–32.22 58 1.19 (3.48) 0.00–19.44 170 2.03 (4.40) 0.00–32.22
Child care cost 112 0.04 (0.42) 0.00–4.44 58 0.13 (0.78) 0.00–5.56 170 0.07 (0.57) 0.00–5.56
Indirect cost (Average household productivity lossb) 106 13.87 (31.36) 0.00–222.22 56 10.88 (16.65) 0.00–69.44 162 12.84 (27.17) 0.00–222.22
Total cost per episodec 100 21.49 (31.42) 3.23–235.00 55 16.79 (17.30) 3.23–72.80 155 19.82 (27.29) 3.23–235.00
Total cost per episode paid out of pocket 100 19.21 (30.70) 0.56–228.44 55 16.79 (17.30) 3.23–72.80 155 18.35 (26.69) 0.56–228.44
  1. SD Standard Deviation, NA Not applicable, NE Not estimated; aRoutine healthcare facility management costs for healthcare service costs per day (equipment maintenance, electricity, water, stationary, e.t.c); bEstimated by multiplying the average days when the household lost income opportunities by the household average daily income; cSum of direct and indirect costs
  2. d1 US$ = 90 Kenya Shillings; eNo variability as the same amount was used for all patients