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Table 2 Overall costs (US$d), including direct and indirect costs, related to influenza-associated illness among inpatients in Kenya, July 2013–August 2014

From: The cost of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Kenya

Expenditure item < 5 years ≥5 years Total
n Mean (SD) Range (min-max) n Mean (SD) Range (min-max) n Mean (SD) Range (min-max)
Direct cost 76 75.42 (71.10) 6.45–573.17 14 75.45 (36.27) 23.89–143.91 90 75.43 (66.73) 6.45–573.17
Healthcare prior to hospital/clinic visit 88 7.59 (16.95) 0.00–111.11 17 6.56 (8.48) 0.00–27.78 105 7.42 (15.86) 0.00–111.11
Total facility-based medical costs 83 59.81 (63.60) 6.45–561.50 15 55.77 (27.05) 14.67–117.90 98 59.19 (59.39) 6.45–561.50
 Medications 83 13.90 (52.47) 0.33–480.23 15 18.31 (17.45) 0.33–64.78 98 14.58 (48.72) 0.33–480.23
 Hospital bed fees 83 22.11 (13.95) 2.22–62.22 15 15.70 (6.13) 2.22–25.00 98 21.13 (13.24) 2.22–62.22
 Procedure fees (non−/surgical) 83 2.48 (5.03) 0.00–41.11 15 2.44 (2.19) 0.00–5.56 98 2.48 (4.70) 0.00–41.11
 Diagnostic tests 83 4.59 (9.72) 0.00–82.78 15 7.84 (10.33) 0.00–38.00 98 5.09 (9.83) 0.00–82.78
 Routine health facility service management costa 83 16.59 (10.24) 3.23–45.16 15 11.40 (4.02) 3.23–19.35 98 15.80 (9.72) 3.23–45.16
Total transportation costs 88 4.68 (8.02) 0.00–56.67 17 6.86 (9.78) 0.00–36.67 105 5.03 (8.32) 0.00–56.67
 Personal car/taxi 10 10.88 (9.51) 0.56–32.22 5 23.91 (28.40) 0.67–66.67 15 15.22 (18.14) 0.56–66.67
 Matatu/bus 70 9.39 (9.79) 0.89–67.78 17 6.74 (5.35) 0.67–17.89 87 8.87 (9.13) 0.67–67.78
 Motorbike/bike/tuktuk 15 5.36 (5.08) 1.11–17.78 2 16.39 (12.18) 7.78–25.00 17 6.66 (6.73) 1.11–25.00
Healthcare after discharge 88 3.25 (5.95) 0.00–34.44 17 3.43 (7.53) 0.00–31.11 105 3.28 (6.19) 0.00–34.44
Child care cost 88 0.14 (0.81) 0.00–5.56 17 0.00 (0.00) 0.00–0.00 105 0.11 (0.75) 0.00–5.56
Indirect cost (Average household productivity lossb) 81 38.94 (38.59) 0.00–187.50 15 58.61 (53.37) 11.11–180.56 96 42.01 (41.54) 0.00–187.50
Total cost per episodec 76 114.25 (90.03) 9.89–670.39 14 137.45 (76.24) 36.86–287.57 90 117.86 (88.04) 9.89–670.39
Total cost per episode paid out of pocket 76 76.45 (55.13) 2.22–302.22 14 137.45 (76.24) 36.86–287.57 90 85.94 (62.49) 2.22–302.22
  1. SD Standard Deviation, NA Not applicable; aRoutine healthcare facility management costs for healthcare service costs per day (equipment maintenance, electricity, water, stationary, e.t.c); bEstimated by multiplying the average days when the household lost income opportunities by the household average daily income; cSum of direct and indirect costs
  2. d1 US$ = 90 Kenya Shillings