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Table 3 Prediction of depressive symptoms at the 2.5 year follow-up (T1) by the SES indicator education

From: Income and education predict elevated depressive symptoms in the general population: results from the Gutenberg health study

  Complete sample (T0) persons without elevated depressive symptoms at T0 persons with elevated depressive symptoms at T0
PHQ-2 ≥ 2 at T1 (2898/12484) PHQ-2 ≥ 2 at T1 (1455/9605) PHQ-2 ≥ 2 at T1 (1443/2879)
Adj. OR (95% CI) p Adj. OR (95% CI) p Adj. OR (95% CI) p
Education
Model 1
(A) only
 Education (range 1–7) 0.95 (0.93–0.97) <  0.0001 0.95 (0.92–0.98) <  0.0001 0.98 (0.94–1.01) 0.230
(B) with three dimensions
 Education (range 1–7) 0.99 (0.96–1.01) 0.269 0.98 (0.95–1.02) 0.300 0.98 (0.94–1.03) 0.432
Model 2
(A) only
 Education (range 1–7) 0.95 (0.93–0.97) <  0.0001 0.94 (0.91–0.97) <  0.0001 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.093
(B) with three dimensions
 Education (range 1–7) 0.97 (0.94–0.99) 0.015 0.96 (0.93–0.99) 0.036 0.97 (0.93–1.02) 0.206
  1. Model 1 adjusted for sex, age, living with partner and major medical diseases3
  2. Model 2 adjusted for sex, age, living with partner, major medical diseases3, PHQ-2 (T0), MH2 of depressive disorder, GAD-2 (T0) and MH2 of anxiety disorder
  3. A: included only the respective SES dimension, e.g. education; B: included all three SES dimensions concurrently as predictor variables
  4. 2MH Medical history
  5. 3Major medical diseases = any of the following diseases: CVD Cancer, diabetes, COPD Asthma
  6. *boldface indicates p < 0.5 for odds ratios