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Table 4 Fixed Effects Analysis of the Association between County-Level Characteristics and Individual Health Behaviors, U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1992–2012

From: The association of county-level socioeconomic factors with individual tobacco and alcohol use: a longitudinal study of U.S. adults

  β Coefficient [95% CI]
Smoker Unadjusted Smoker Adjusted Daily Cigarettes Unadjusted Daily Cigarettes Adjusted Binge Drinking Unadjusted Binge Drinking Adjusted Daily Drinks Unadjusted Daily Drinks Adjusted
County characteristics
 Unemployment rate −0.0036* − 0.0034* − 0.056* − 0.053* − 0.000045 0.00020 0.032* 0.026*
  [− 0.0060, − 0.0012] [−0.0058, − 0.00092] [−0.098, − 0.013] [−0.098, − 0.0084] [−0.0030, 0.0029] [− 0.0029, 0.0033] [0.0082, 0.055] [0.0025, 0.050]
 Income (per $1000) −0.00052 −0.00056 − 0.0049 −0.0069 0.00095* 0.00077 0.0062* 0.0042
  [−0.0012, 0.00018] [− 0.0013, 0.00017] [− 0.017, 0.0074] [−0.020, 0.0063] [0.00008, 0.0018] [−0.00013, 0.0017] [0.00079, 0.012] [−0.0013, 0.0097]
 % < high school − 0.00020 −0.00015 0.0068 0.0086* − 0.000033 −0.000060 − 0.0020 −0.0015
  [−0.00072, 0.00032] [−0.00070, 0.00040] [− 0.0010, 0.015] [0.00013, 0.017] [− 0.00059, 0.00052] [− 0.00065, 0.00053] [−0.0053, 0.0012] [− 0.0049, 0.0019]
Ln(Household income)   −0.00023   0.048*   0.0059*   0.050*
   [−0.0024, 0.0019]   [0.0057, 0.091]   [0.0039, 0.0079]   [0.037, 0.064]
Education (ref < HS)
 High school   −0.0015   −0.10   −0.0063   0.045
   [−0.025, 0.022]   [−0.57, 0.36]   [−0.029, 0.017]   [−0.16, 0.25]
 Some college   0.000067   −0.14   −0.015   0.051
   [−0.027, 0.027]   [−0.68, 0.39]   [−0.042, 0.012]   [−0.17, 0.28]
 College or more   0.0013   0.34   −0.0042   0.14
   [−0.035, 0.038]   [−0.34, 1.02]   [−0.043, 0.034]   [−0.14, 0.43]
Married   −0.031*   −0.49   −0.044*   −0.21*
   [−0.047, − 0.015]   [− 0.80, − 0.18]   [−0.065, − 0.022]   [− 0.34, − 0.085]
Ln(Weeks unemployed)   0.0060*   0.12*   0.0017   0.032*
   [0.0021, 0.0099]   [0.046, 0.20]   [−0.0030, 0.0064]   [0.00084, 0.064]
Number of children   −0.0016   0.066   0.0044   0.0094
   [−0.0062, 0.0030]   [−0.018, 0.15]   [−0.0013, 0.010]   [−0.026, 0.045]
No. Observations 42,996 42,996 40,735 40,735 39,402 39,402 44,272 44,272
No. Individuals 9246 9246 9206 9206 8943 8943 9064 9064
  1. *p < 0.05. HS = high school. County-level characteristics included annual unemployment rate, inflation-adjusted per capita personal income, and percent with less than a high school education. Analyses were conducted using multivariable linear regressions with imputed data, including fixed effects at the individual level to adjust for time-invariant individual characteristics. Linear probability models were used for binary outcomes. Additional controls included fixed effects for year