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Table 3 Ordinary Least Squares Analysis of the Association between County-Level Characteristics and Individual Health Behaviors, U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1992–2012

From: The association of county-level socioeconomic factors with individual tobacco and alcohol use: a longitudinal study of U.S. adults

  β Coefficient [95% CI]
Smoker Unadjusted Smoker Adjusted Daily Cigarettes Unadjusted Daily Cigarettes Adjusted Binge Drinking Unadjusted Binge Drinking Adjusted Daily Drinks Unadjusted Daily Drinks Adjusted
County characteristics
 Unemployment rate − 0.0055* − 0.0053* − 0.14* − 0.085* − 0.00064 − 0.0011 0.021* 0.012
  [−0.0080, − 0.0031] [− 0.0077, − 0.0029] [− 0.19, − 0.094] [− 0.13, − 0.039] [− 0.0031, 0.0018] [− 0.0036, 0.0014] [0.0037, 0.037] [− 0.0055, 0.030]
 Income (per $1000) − 0.0020* − 0.00080* − 0.055* − 0.030* − 0.00088* − 0.00070* − 0.0025 − 0.0019
  [−0.0028, − 0.0013] [− 0.0015, − 0.00009] [− 0.067, − 0.042] [− 0.042, − 0.018] [− 0.0015, − 0.00031] [− 0.0013, − 0.00014] [−0.0055, 0.00054] [− 0.0049, 0.0010]
 % < high school − 0.00090* − 0.00099* − 0.0085 −0.0014 0.00025 0.00024 −0.00017 0.000077
  [−0.0016, − 0.00023] [− 0.0017, − 0.00028] [− 0.019, 0.0019] [− 0.012, 0.0098] [− 0.00032, 0.00081] [− 0.00036, 0.00083] [− 0.0033, 0.0029] [− 0.0032, 0.0033]
Female   −0.021*   −0.67*   −0.15*   −0.83*
   [−0.037, − 0.0051]   [− 0.97, − 0.38]   [− 0.17, − 0.14]   [− 0.90, − 0.77]
Race (ref white/other)
 Black   −0.048*   −2.76*   −0.066*   −0.52*
   [−0.067, − 0.029]   [− 3.12, − 2.40]   [− 0.079, − 0.053]   [−0.59, − 0.44]
 Hispanic   −0.12*   −3.64*   −0.015   0.015
   [−0.14, − 0.096]   [−4.03, − 3.25]   [− 0.032, 0.0018]   [− 0.086, 0.12]
Ln(Household income)   −0.0087*   −0.074*   0.0063*   0.055*
   [−0.012, − 0.0057]   [− 0.12, − 0.025]   [0.0045, 0.0080]   [0.044, 0.066]
Education (ref < HS)
 High school   −0.15*   −2.84*   −0.013   −0.16*
   [−0.18, − 0.13]   [− 3.41, − 2.28]   [− 0.031, 0.0046]   [− 0.28, − 0.030]
 Some college   −0.22*   −4.02*   −0.054*   −0.36*
   [−0.24, − 0.19]   [−4.58, − 3.47]   [− 0.073, − 0.034]   [−0.49, − 0.24]
 College or more   −0.36*   −6.57*   −0.092*   −0.54*
   [−0.39, − 0.33]   [−7.13, − 6.00]   [− 0.11, − 0.072]   [−0.67, − 0.41]
Married   −0.074*   −0.96*   −0.053*   −0.37*
   [−0.094, − 0.055]   [− 1.30, − 0.62]   [−0.068, − 0.039]   [− 0.45, − 0.29]
Ln(Weeks unemployed)   0.036*   0.62*   0.011*   0.090*
   [0.030, 0.043]   [0.49, 0.74]   [0.0063, 0.016]   [0.058, 0.12]
Number of children   −0.016*   −0.26*   −0.0097*   −0.035*
   [−0.022, − 0.011]   [− 0.37, − 0.16]   [−0.014, − 0.0052]   [− 0.062, − 0.0092]
No. Observations 42,996 42,996 40,735 40,735 39,402 39,402 44,272 44,272
No. Individuals 9246 9246 9206 9206 8943 8943 9064 9064
  1. *p < 0.05. HS = high school. County-level characteristics included annual unemployment rate, inflation-adjusted per capita personal income, and percent with less than a high school education. Analyses were conducted using multivariable linear regressions with imputed data. Linear probability models were used for binary outcomes. Additional controls included fixed effects for year