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Fig. 2 | BMC Public Health

Fig. 2

From: The association of county-level socioeconomic factors with individual tobacco and alcohol use: a longitudinal study of U.S. adults

Fig. 2

County socioeconomic disadvantage, 1992. Higher values represent higher levels of county socioeconomic disadvantage. For illustrative purposes, measures of county-level educational attainment, unemployment, and income were standardized with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one, and these three values were then summed to obtain the composite index shown here. Source: Authors’ calculations using publicly available data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Bureau of Economic Analysis, and the Census Bureau

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