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Table 2 Categorical smoking and socioeconomic variables by job type, Pennsylvania Adult Smoking Study

From: Socioeconomic differences in nicotine exposure and dependence in adult daily smokers

  Overall Unemployeda(n = 63) Blue Collar (n = 177) White Collar (n = 86) p-value
Socioeconomic Variables Group n % n % n % n %
Sex Male 139 42.6 14 22.2 94 53.1 31 36.0 <.001
Female 187 57.4 49 77.8 83 46.9 55 64.0
Race White 287 88.0 58 92.1 153 86.4 76 88.4 0.495
Non White 39 12.0 5 7.9 24 13.6 10 11.6
Education Level Less than HS Graduate 22 6.7 11 17.5 9 5.1 2 2.3 <.001
HS Graduate/GED 142 43.6 26 41.3 93 52.5 23 26.7
Some College 77 23.6 14 22.2 38 21.5 25 29.1
Associate’s Degree 54 16.6 8 12.7 28 15.8 18 20.9
Bachelor’s Degree or Greater 31 9.5 4 6.3 9 5.1 18 20.9
Education Level (binary) Less than HS Graduate/GED 22 6.7 11 17.5 9 5.0 2 2.3 0.001
HS Graduate/GED or Greater 304 93.3 52 82.5 168 95.0 84 97.7
Marital Status Married 223 68.4 45 71.4 129 72.9 49 57.0 0.029
Not Married 103 31.6 18 28.6 48 27.1 37 43.0
Type of Dwelling House 80 24.7 24 38.1 40 22.7 16 18.8 0.018
Apartment/Mobile Home 244 75.3 39 61.9 136 77.3 69 81.2
Mother’s Education Less than HS Graduate 48 14.8 12 19.4 25 14.1 11 12.8 0.298
HS Graduate/GED 168 51.7 37 59.7 86 48.6 45 52.3
Some College 29 8.9 3 4.8 18 10.2 8 9.3
Associate’s Degree 32 9.8 4 6.5 19 10.7 9 10.5
Bachelor’s Degree or Greater 36 11.1 2 3.2 22 12.4 12 14.0
Don’t know 12 3.7 4 6.5 7 4.0 1 1.2
Mother’s Education (Binary) Less than HS Graduate/GED 68 20.9 56 90.3 136 76.8 65 75.6 0.052
HS Graduate/GED or Greater 257 79.1 6 9.7 41 23.2 21 24.4
Father’s Education Less than HS Graduate 57 18.0 14 23.3 31 17.8 12 14.5 0.557
HS Graduate/GED or Greater 146 46.1 27 45.0 82 47.1 37 44.6
Some College 24 7.6 4 6.7 12 6.9 8 9.6
Associate’s Degree 20 6.3 5 8.3 10 5.7 5 6.0
Bachelor’s Degree or Greater 38 12.0 3 5.0 20 11.5 15 18.1
Don’t know 32 10.1 7 11.7 19 10.9 6 7.2
Father’s Education (Binary) Less than HS Graduate/GED 58 18.3 52 86.7 144 82.8 63 75.9 0.225
HS Graduate/GED or Greater 259 81.7 8 13.3 30 17.2 20 24.1
Home Mortgage No Mortgage 66 20.2 11 17.5 43 24.3 12 14.0 0.122
Rent/Still Paying 260 79.8 52 82.5 134 75.7 74 86.0
Median Household County Income <  52 k 34 10.5 10 15.9 19 10.8 5 5.9 0.085
> 52 k, < 55.2 k 153 47.2 22 34.9 83 47.2 48 56.5
> 55.2 k 137 42.3 31 49.2 74 42.0 32 37.6
Savings Account No 142 43.6 41 65.1 78 44.1 23 26.7 <.001
Yes 184 56.4 22 34.9 99 55.9 63 73.3
Smoking Variables
 Cigarettes per day < 20 CPD 259 80.2 43 69.4 139 79.0 77 90.6 0.005
≥20 CPD 64 19.8 19 30.6 37 21.0 8 9.4  
 Menthol cigarette smoker No 146 45.5 28 44.4 74 43.0 44 51.2 0.457
Yes 175 54.5 35 55.6 98 57.0 42 48.8  
  1. aIncludes adult students, disabled, and retired participants. Abbreviations: CPD: Cigarettes per day, HS: high school, GED: general education diploma