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Table 4 Linear regression on perceived restorative capacity of the running environment (N = 2477)

From: Attractive running environments for all? A cross-sectional study on physical environmental characteristics and runners’ motives and attitudes, in relation to the experience of the running environment

  Model 1 (confounders, motives and attitudes, perceived environmental characteristics) Model 2 (model 1 + perceived environmental – years of running experience interactions)
  St. Beta (p) SE St. Beta (p) SE
Constanta 0.258 0.237 − 0.139 0.696
Confounders
 Age (ref = ≥ 46 year)
 ≤ 35 year − 0.01 0.03 −0.008 0.03
 36–45 year −0.031* 0.027 −0.031* 0.027
Male (female = ref) −0.002 0.024 −0.002 0.024
Education (higher = ref)
 Lower or middle 0.014 0.024 0.014 0.024
Years of running experience (> 5 y = ref)
 < 1 y 0.015 0.037 0.112 0.275
 1–5 y 0.01 0.025 −0.023 0.166
Distance monitoring y/n (ref = no) 0.011 0.026 0.009 0.026
Watch use (ref = no) 0.025 0.037 0.029 0.037
App use (ref = no) 0.047* 0.042 0.049* 0.042
Organizational context (athletics club = ref)
 Individual −0.016 0.032 −0.013 0.032
 Friends, colleagues, small group −0.008 0.034 −0.008 0.034
Intrapersonal characteristics: motivations and attitudes
 Bodily and mental advantages of running 0.041* 0.029 0.041* 0.029
 Identification with running 0.017 0.025 0.015 0.025
 Practical advantages of running 0.015 0.025 0.018 0.025
 Individual motives for quitting −0.022 0.017 −0.02 0.017
 Social motives for quitting 0.008 0.018 0.007 0.018
Perceived environmental characteristics
 Hinderance by pedestrians −0.025 0.019 −0.231 0.148
 Hinderance by cyclists/mopeds 0.008 0.014 0.148 0.112
 Hinderance by cars −0.040** 0.013 0.304* 0.105
 Hinderance by unleashed dogs 0.012 0.011 −0.077 0.091
 Hinderance through remarks −0.007 0.021 0.161 0.161
 Hinderance through threats −0.015 0.023 −0.167 0.179
 Hinderance through poor lighting 0.016 0.009 0.023 0.073
 Comfortable surface 0.037** 0.012 −0.086 0.094
 Lively route 0.128*** 0.013 0.127 0.097
 Green route 0.686*** 0.013 0.808*** 0.105
Interactions perceived environment characteristics * years of running experience (ref = > 5 y running experience)
 Pedestrians * < 1 y running experience    0.017 0.06
 Pedestrians * 1–5 y running experience    0.24** 0.041
 Cyclists/mopeds * < 1 y running experience    −0.044 0.045
 Cyclists/mopeds * 1–5 y running experience    −0.111 0.031
 Cars * < 1 y running experience    −0.205* 0.043
 Cars * 1–5 y running experience    −0.192** 0.029
 Unleashed dogs * < 1 y running experience    0.046 0.038
 Unleashed dogs * 1–5 y running experience    0.058 0.024
 Remarks * < 1 y running experience    −0.155 0.063
 Remarks * 1–5 y running experience    −0.031 0.047
 Threats * < 1 y running experience    0.136 0.072
 Threats * 1–5 y running experience    0.034 0.05
 Poor lighting * < 1 y running experience    −0.027 0.03
 Poor lighting * 1–5 y running experience    0.022 0.02
 Comfortable surface * < 1 y running experience    0.099 0.039
 Comfortable surface * 1–5 y running experience    0.071 0.025
 Lively route * < 1 y running experience    0.076 0.039
 Lively route * 1–5 y running experience    −0.1 0.027
 Green route * < 1 y running experience    −0.187 0.043
 Green route * 1–5 y running experience    0.04 0.029
Model fit
 Adjusted R2 0.599 0.602
 SE 0.5261 0.5244
  1. aConstant: Unstandardized Beta instead of Standardized Beta
  2. *Significance < 0.05; **Significance < 0.01; ***Significance < 0.001