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Table 3 Linear regression on perceived attractiveness of the running environment (N = 2477)

From: Attractive running environments for all? A cross-sectional study on physical environmental characteristics and runners’ motives and attitudes, in relation to the experience of the running environment

  Model 1 (confounders, motives and attitudes, perceived environmental characteristics) Model 2 (model 1 + perceived environmental – years of running experience interactions)
St. Beta (p) SE St. Beta (p) SE
Constanta 0.574* 0.253 1.314 0.744
Confounders
 Age (ref = ≥ 46 year)
 ≤ 35 year − 0.016 0.032 − 0.016 0.032
 36–45 year − 0.04* 0.029 − 0.042* 0.029
Male (female = ref) − 0.016 0.025 − 0.015 0.025
Education (higher = ref)
 Lower or middle −0.011 0.026 −0.011 0.026
Years of running experience (>  5 year = ref)
 < 1 year 0.009 0.039 − 0.112 0.294
 1–5 year − 0.025 0.026 − 0.1 0.178
Distance monitoring y/n (ref = no) 0.001 0.028 −0.001 0.028
Watch use (ref = no) 0.012 0.039 0.014 0.039
App use (ref = no) 0.014 0.045 0.013 0.045
Organizational context (athletics club = ref)
 Individual 0.050* 0.034 0.052* 0.034
 Friends, colleagues, small group 0.011 0.036 0.013 0.036
Intrapersonal characteristics: motivations and attitudes
 Bodily and mental advantages of running 0.037* 0.031 0.039* 0.031
 Identification with running −0.015 0.027 −0.019 0.027
 Practical advantages of running 0.043* 0.027 0.043* 0.027
 Individual motives for quitting −0.015 0.018 −0.016 0.018
 Social motives for quitting −0.003 0.019 −0.002 0.019
Perceived environmental characteristics
 Hinderance by pedestrians −0.049** 0.021 −0.089 0.158
 Hinderance by cyclists/mopeds −0.006 0.015 0.03 0.119
 Hinderance by cars −0.038* 0.014 0.046 0.112
 Hinderance by unleashed dogs 0.011 0.012 −0.287* 0.097
 Hinderance through remarks −0.001 0.022 0.153 0.172
 Hinderance through threats −0.031 0.025 −0.068 0.191
 Hinderance through poor lighting 0.037* 0.01 0.126 0.078
 Comfortable surface 0.17*** 0.013 −0.103 0.101
 Lively route 0.33*** 0.013 0.161 0.104
 Green route 0.434*** 0.014 0.606*** 0.113
Interactions perceived environment characteristics * years of running experience (ref = >  5 y running experience)
 Pedestrians * < 1 y running experience    0.003 0.064
 Pedestrians * 1–5 y running experience    0.048 0.044
 Cyclists/mopeds * < 1 y running experience    −0.029 0.048
 Cyclists/mopeds * 1–5 y running experience    −0.007 0.033
 Cars * < 1 y running experience    −0.041 0.045
 Cars * 1–5 y running experience    −0.058 0.031
 Unleashed dogs * < 1 y running experience    0.269* 0.041
 Unleashed dogs * 1–5 y running experience    0.061 0.025
 Remarks * < 1 y running experience    −0.123 0.067
 Remarks * 1–5 y running experience    −0.047 0.050
 Threats * < 1 y running experience    −0.009 0.077
 Threats * 1–5 y running experience    0.056 0.053
 Poor lighting * < 1 y running experience    −0.053 0.032
 Poor lighting * 1–5 y running experience    −0.05 0.021
 Comfortable surface * < 1 y running experience    0.177 0.042
 Comfortable surface * 1–5 y running experience    0.209** 0.027
 Lively route * < 1 y running experience    0.236* 0.042
 Lively route * 1–5 y running experience    −0.034 0.029
 Green route * < 1 y running experience    −0.173 0.046
 Green route * 1–5 y running experience    −0.078 0.031
Model fit
 Adjusted R2 0.509   0.509  
 SE 0.5607   0.5605  
  1. aConstant: Unstandardized Beta instead of Standardized Beta
  2. *Significance < 0.05; **Significance < 0.01; ***Significance < 0.001