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Table 3 Association between FSWs’ individual, sex work and relationship level predictors and their experience of IPV

From: What determines violence among female sex workers in an intimate partner relationship? Findings from North Karnataka, south India

Characteristics Severe physical and/or sexual IPV in last 6 months Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORa (95% CI)
% N
Overall 24.4 620   
Individual characteristics
 FSW aged above 25 years (Ref- 25 years or below) 25.8 546 2.49 (1.24–4.99)* 2.31 (1.09–4.89)*
 Literate (Ref- Non-literate) 33.3 63 1.64 (0.93–2.91) 1.98 (1.04–3.78)*
 Ever married (Ref- Never married) 30.0 30 1.25 (0.55–2.80)  
 Number of children (Ref- None) 18.8 85   
  Less than three children 23.3 348 1.35 (0.74–2.47)  
  Three or more children 28.9 187 1.77 (0.94–3.35)  
 With whom FSW has children (Ref- No children) 18.8 85   
  Only with IP 24.3 420 1.41 (0.78–2.56)  
  IP and others 33.3 45 2.53 (1.08–5.92)*  
  Others only 25.7 70 1.45 (0.67–3.14)  
 FSW has any other source of income other than sex work (Ref-No) 24.7 510 1.08 (0.66–1.78)  
 Average monthly income in rupees (Ref- Less than Rs.3500) 19.7 137   
  Rs.3500 to Rs.6999 23.2 375 1.27 (0.78–2.08)  
  More than Rs.6999 34.3 108 2.28 (1.27–4.12)**  
Sex work characteristics
 Place of solicitation (Ref- Home) 22.7 471   
  Public places 31.5 89 1.87 (1.11–3.14)*  
  Phone/others 26.7 60 1.29 (0.69–2.42)  
 Age at start of sex work 15 years or above (Ref- Age less than 15 years) 25.3 380 1.18 (0.81–1.74)  
 Duration in sex work (Ref- Less than 10 years) 13.1 61   
  10 to 19 years 29.9 254 3.21 (1.45–7.10)**  
  20 or more years 22.0 305 2.02 (0.91–4.48)  
 Three or more weekly clients (Ref-Less than three weekly clients) 29.1 213 1.64 (1.11–2.42)*  
 Type of clients FSWs have (Ref- Occasional clients) 24.2 33   
  Regular clients 13.7 255 0.43 (0.17–1.04)  
  Occasional and regular clients 32.5 332 1.44 (0.61–3.37)  
 Member of community based organisation (Ref- Non-members) 21.6 379 0.69 (0.47–1.00)*  
 Used condoms consistently with their clients in past 30 days (Ref- Not used) 23.8 560 0.63 (0.33–1.22)  
 Experienced physical or sexual violence from clients in the last 6 months (Ref- Not experienced) 37.6 101 2.56 (1.59–4.11)*** 2.20 (1.29–3.75)**
Intimate partner (IP) characteristics
 IP age 30 years or more (Ref- Age below 30 years) 25.2 563 1.98 (0.90–4.32)  
 Having literate IP (Ref-Having non-literate IP) 24.9 205 1.08 (0.72–1.61)  
 Having currently married IP (Ref-Having not currently married IP) 25.5 548 2.11 (1.05–4.26)*  
 Occupation of IP (Ref- Cultivator) 26.5 196   
  Agricultural labourer 24.1 203 0.85 (0.54–1.35)  
  Non-agricultural labourer 19.3 88 0.65 (0.35–1.21)  
  Other work 25.2 131 1.01 (0.60–1.69)  
 IP from other caste (Ref-IP from scheduled caste or tribe) 26.0 369 1.28 (0.87–1.89)  
 Has children with other women partner (Ref- No) 20.9 110   
  Yes 25.9 444 1.32 (0.79–2.20)  
  Don’t know 19.7 66 0.99 (0.46–2.15)  
 Frequency of alcohol use (Ref- Never) 19.1 425   
  Occasionally 26.5 151 1.46 (0.94–2.26)  
  Frequently 66.7 42 9.26 (4.43–19.38)***  
Intimate relationship characteristics
 Duration of intimate relationship (Ref- Less than 5 years) 19.5 87   
  5 to 9 years 22.4 147 1.17 (0.60–2.28)  
  10 or more years 26.2 386 1.44 (0.80–2.59)  
 IP was client before he became IP (Ref-No) 23.9 394 0.97 (0.66–1.42)  
 Frequency of visit by IP (Ref- Most frequent (daily/weekly)) 22.4 401   
  Monthly 27.1 166 1.34 (0.88–2.05)  
  Less often 27.1 48 1.25 (0.63–2.49)  
 IP aware of FSW’s sex work profession (Ref- No) 15.2 99 0.47 (0.26–0.84)*  
 Had sexual intercourse with IP in the last 7 days (Ref-No) 21.5 362 0.68 (0.46–0.98)*  
 Number of sexual intercourse with IP in the last 1 month (Ref- Less than 3 times) 26.0 262   
  3 to 4 times 20.9 139 0.69 (0.42–1.14)  
  5 or more time 24.0 183 0.87 (0.56–1.35)  
 IP was under influence of alcohol during sex in the month preceding the survey (Ref- No) 38.3 149 2.41 (1.60–3.62)*** 2.30 (1.47–3.59)***
 FSWs give financial support to IP (Ref- No) 30.5 187 1.43 (0.97–2.11) 2.07 (1.28–3.34)**
 FSWs receive social support by IP (Ref- No) 21.9 498 0.53 (0.34–0.82)** 0.38 (0.23–0.65)***
 FSWs feel afraid of their IP (Ref- No) 30.0 313 2.20 (1.50–3.22)*** 1.94 (1.23–3.04)**
 FSWs refused to have sex with IP in the past 6 months preceding the survey (Ref- No) 32.8 67 1.50 (0.86–2.61)  
 FSWs frequently receive love and affection from their IPs (Ref- No) 22.7 467 0.65 (0.43–0.99)*  
 FSWs believe that their IP is unlikely to leave them (Ref- No) 19.0 401 0.40 (0.27–0.58)*** 0.46 (0.30–0.72)**
 Used condoms consistently with their IPs (Ref- No) 24.2 269 0.95 (0.65–1.38)  
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. a Final model is adjusted for age, literacy, experience of physical or sexual violence from clients in the last 6 months, IP under the influence of alcohol during sex, sex workers providing financial support to IP, sex workers receiving social support from IP, sex workers afraid of their IP, sex workers believe their IP is unlikely to leave them