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Table 2 Risk factors associated with S. haematobium infection among pregnant women in Munyenge

From: Schistosoma haematobium infection status and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in Munyenge, South West Region, Cameroon following scale-up of communal piped water sources from 2014 to 2017: a cross-sectional study

Variable Category S. haematobium Positive %(n) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) aAdjusted OR (95% CI) P value
Age Group (years) ≤20 28.4(23) 1.54(0.84–2.83) 0.88(0.37–2.09) 0.772
21–25 20.7(24) 1.01(0.57–1.82) 0.99(0.49–2.02) 0.984
> 25 20.5(35) REF REF  
χ2; P value 2.24; 0.326    
Gravidity Primigravidae 24.3(28) 1.37(0.77–2.44) NA NA
Secundigravidae 25.6(23) 1.46(0.79–2.70)   
Multigravidae 19.0(31) REF   
χ2; P value 1.84; 0.398    
Marital Status Single 35.7(35) 3.02(1.78–5.13) 2.24(1.04–4.79) 0.038
Married 17.4(47) REF REF  
χ2; P value 13.91; < 0.001    
Educational level Primary 25.0(39) 1.47(0.87–2.46) 2.00(1.04–3.85) 0.039
Secondary 20.3(43) REF REF  
χ2; P value 1.15; 0.283    
Occupation Housewife 21.6(27) 1.26(0.63–2.50) 1.47(0.65–3.33) 0.360
Student 31.2(25) 2.07(1.01–4.25) 2.50(0.86–7.30) 0.094
Farmer 21.6(16) 1.26(0.58–2.73) 1.71(0.67–4.36) 0.260
Business 15.7(14) REF REF  
χ2; P value 5.97; 0.113    
Water source Stream only 33.1(59) 1.70(0.97–2.95) 1.49(0.79–2.81) 0.224
Stream and piped water 22.5(23) REF REF  
Piped water only 0(0)  
χ2; P value 24.89; < 0.001    
Stream contact activity Domestic contact + Bathing 48.3(43) 3.64(2.1–6.28) 3.31(1.83–6.01) < 0.001
Domestic contact only 20.4(39) REF REF  
χ2; P value 22.81; < 0.001    
Stream visits per week < 3 times 24.6(58) 0.27(0.12–0.53) 0.35(0.17–0.74) 0.006
≥3 times 54.5(24) REF REF  
χ2; P value 16.08; < 0.001    
  1. χ2 = Pearson Chi-square test; OR = odd ratio; aOR = adjusted OR using multivariate regression analysis