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Table 4 Factors associated with the revision of diagnosis from non-TB into TB among non-TB patients

From: Sensitivity and specificity of routine diagnostic work-up for tuberculosis in lung clinics in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a cohort study

Variable Revised diagnosis from non-TB into TB RR 95%CI
Yes (n = 14) No (n = 198)
Age, n (%)
≥46 years old 5 (35.7) 117 (59.1) 0.41 0.14–1.18
< 46 years old 9 (64.3) 81 (40.9) 1  
Sex, n (%)
Male 8 (57.1) 118 (59.6) 0.91 0.33–2.53
Female 6 (42.9) 80 (40.4) 1  
BMI, n (%)
< 18.5 or > 25 6 (42.9) 75 (37.9) 1.21 0.44–3.37
18.5–25 8 (57.1) 123 (62.1) 1  
History of TB, n (%)
Yes 2 (14.3) 26 (13.1) 1.10 0.26–4.64
No 12 (85.7) 172 (86.9) 1  
Housing conditions, n (%)
Crowded neighborhood or poorly ventilated house 12 (85.7) 136 (68.7) 2.59 0.60–11.26
Not crowded neighborhood and adequate ventilated house 2 (14.3) 62 (31.3) 1  
TB index cases in surrounding area, n(%)
Present 7 (50) 9 (4.5) 12.25 4.90–30.60
Not present 7 (50) 189 (95.5) 1  
HIV* comorbidities, n(%)
Yes 1 (7.1) 2 (1.0) 5.36 0.99–28.89
No 13 (92.9) 196 (99.0) 1  
Diabetes mellitus comorbidities, n(%)
Yes 1 (7.1) 9 (4.5) 1.55 0.23–10.73
No 13 (92.9) 189 (95.5) 1  
Smoking status, n(%)
Current smoker or stopped smoking < 10 years 3 (21.4) 55 (27.8) 0.72 0.21–2.50
Never-smoker or non-smoker > 10 years 11 (78.6) 143 (72.2) 1  
Symptoms, n(%)
Cough > 2 weeks
Yes 14 (100.0) 177 (89.4) N.A. N.A.
No 0 (0.0) 21 (10.6)   
Unintentional weight loss
Yes 9 (64.3) 92 (46.5) 1.98 0.69–5.71
No 5 (35.7) 106 (53.5) 1  
Night sweats
Yes 5 (35.7) 162 (81.8) 0.57 0.20–1.67
No 9 (64.3) 36 (18.2) 1  
Sputum smear microscopy, n(%)
Positive 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) N.A. N.A.
Negative 14 (100.0) 198 (100.0)   
Mycobacterial culture, n(%)
M. tuberculosis 10 (71.4) 7 (3.5) 28.68 10.05–81.81
Negative or NTM* 4 (28.6) 191 (96.5) 1  
Chest X-ray findings at presentation, n(%)
Suggestive of TB 7 (50.0) 33 (16.7) 4.30 1.60–11.57
Not suggestive of TB 7 (50.0) 165 (83.3) 1  
Follow-up, n(%)
Suggestive of TB 14 (100.0) 0 (0.0) N.A. N.A.
Not suggestive of TB 0 (0.0) 198 (100.0)   
  1. *HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus, NTM: Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria
  2. Data are presented as percentage