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Table 3 Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for mental health problems

From: Perceived discrimination, health and mental health among immigrants in Norway: the role of moderating factors

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
PD 2.22 (1.84–2.67)*** 2.03 (1.66–2.48)*** 1.86 (1.51–2.28)***
Gender 1.46 (1.22–1.75)*** 1.54 (1.27–1.87)*** 1.64 (1.34–2.00)***
Age: 45–66 Ref Ref Ref
 16–24 0.66 (0.49–0.89)** 0.67 (0.48–0.94)* 0.66 (0.47–0.94)*
 25–44 0.66 (0.54–0.80)*** 0.62 (0.50–0.76)*** 0.62 (0.50–0.77)***
Country of origin
 Vietnam Ref Ref Ref
 Poland 1.44 (0.84–2.50) 1.68 (0.96–2.95) 1.52 (0.86–2.71)
 Turkey 3.22 (1.95–5.32)*** 2.68 (1.59–4.50)*** 2.78 (1.64–4.72)***
 Bosnia-Herzegovina 1.97 (1.16–3.34)* 2.25 (1.31–3.87)** 2.71 (1.56–4.71)***
 Kosovo 1.98 (1.18–3.34)* 1.96 (1.11–3.28)* 2.34 (1.35–4.04)**
 Eritrea 0.92 (0.51–1.66) 0.65 (0.36–1.19) 0.73 (0.40–1.35)
 Somalia 0.86 (0.47–1.57) 0.51 (0.27–0.96)* 0.59 (0.31–1.13)
 Afghanistan 2.09 (1.24–3.52)** 1.96 (1.13–3.41)* 1.98 (1.13–3.48)*
 Sri Lanka 1.03 (0.58–1.83) 0.68 (0.38–1.23) 0.97 (0.53–1.77)
 Iraq 3.28 (1.99–5.41)*** 1.94 (1.15–3.28)* 2.09 (1.23–3.55)**
 Iran 3.57 (2.19–5.81)*** 2.66 (1.60–4.40)*** 2.80 (1.67–4.68)***
 Pakistan 2.49 (1.49–4.16)** 1.94 (1.14–3.30)* 2.23 (1.30–3.84)**
Sense of belonging
 To both Ref   
 To Norway 1.29 (1.05–1.59)* 1.38 (1.11–1.72)** 1.36 (1.08–1.70)**
 To country of origin 1.57 (1.19–2.07)** 1.62 (1.20–2.18)** 1.38 (1.02–1.87)*
 Neither 2.21 (1.54–3.18)*** 2.03 (1.37–3.01)*** 1.63 (1.02–2.45)*
Financial situation (1–6) 0.63 (0.59–0.68)*** 0.61 (0.56–0.66)*** 0.63 (0.58–0.68)***
Social support 0.51 (0.41–0.63)*** 0.61 (0.48–0.77)*** 0.64 (0.51–0.83)***
Trust in others (0–10) 0.83 (0.80–0.86)*** 0.84 (0.81–0.88)*** 0.86 (0.82–0.89)***
Religiosity (0–10) 1.00 (0.97–1.02)
Norwegian proficiency (1–5) 0.86 (0.79–0.94)** 0.93 (0.83–1.03)
  1. Model 1: univariate analyses, model 2: each variable adjusted for gender, age, country of origin and financial situation; model 3: model 2 with adjustment for social support, trust in others, Norwegian proficiency and sense of belonging
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001