Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Peer-reviewed articles on non-permanent migration included in the analysis (N = 12)

From: The relationship between non-permanent migration and non-communicable chronic disease outcomes for cancer, heart disease and diabetes – a systematic review

Reference (* signifies reference # in manuscript) Study design Migrant population Geographic border Measurement of non-permanent migration Outcome of interest Relevant results (* = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01 *** = p < 0.001; ^=p > 0.05) Summary Reporting score (max = 22) Quality score (max = 11)
Aguila et al. 2013 ([53]*) doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264312468155
MESH: Emigrants and Immigrants
Cross-sectional study using data from the 2003 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) and the 2004 Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) to compare diabetes outcomes between migrant groups. MHAS:
Return migrants: 1482 Mexican-born people who migrated to US and returned to Mexico
Non-migrants: 11,054 people
HRS:
Immigrants to U.S: 505 people
National: Migration between United States and Mexico Migrant status: Return migration is at least 2 moves (from Mexico to the US and from US back to Mexico) Diabetes (self-report) Men: return migrants compared to immigrants to the US (AOR 0.59, CI 0.26–1.33); non-migrants compared to Mexican immigrants (AOR 0.75, CI 0.31–1.80)
Women: return migrants compared to immigrants to the US (AOR 0.87, CI 0.40–1.85); non-migrants compared to Mexican immigrants (AOR 0.85, CI 0.42–1.71)
Return migrants and non-migrants in Mexico were as likely to report diabetes as immigrants to the United States. 21 8
Castaneda et al. 2012 ([55]*) doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/2150131911422913
Keyword: farmworkers
Cross-sectional study using survey data from 2002 to 2004 to compare cancer screening rates between migrant and seasonal farmworkers. 173 migrant and seasonal farmworkers
Women age > 40
Regional (Intra- national): Migration between Michigan, US, and other regions in the US Migrant status: U.S. Department of Labor’s definition of migrant farmworker status (travels across regions following growing seasons).
Other group: seasonal farmworker status (people living in one area who are residents and work on farms during growing/harvest season)
Cancer: Breast/cervical (self-report and chart review) 1) Ever had a mammogram: seasonal farmworkers (100%) > migrant farmworkers (70.6%).**
2) Pap test (ever or within past year): No difference between groups.^
Migrant farmworkers were less likely to have received a mammogram as compared to permanent seasonal farmworkers. 15.5 4.5
Castaneda et al. 2015 ([54]*)
doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/1059924X.2015.1010060
Keywords: migrant, farmworkers
Cross-sectional study using 2002–2004 data from Oceana Farmworker Health Survey to examine CVD risk factors comparing migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Michigan. 300 farmworkers self-identifying as a migrant (non-permament) or seasonal farmworker (permanent), were recruited through mailings to residences at migrant camps as well as residences outside the camps. Regional: See Castaneda et al. 2012 See Castaneda et al. 2012 Diabetes: Diagnosis as part of a questionnaire (self-report) Migrant (7.0%) < Seasonal farmworkers (11.5%) ^ Non-permanent/ migrant and permanent /seasonal farmworkers did not have a statistical difference in their prevalence of diabetes. 21.5 5.5
Knoff et al. 2013 ([56]*) doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/21501319-13476303MESH: Transients and Migrants Cross-sectional study to compare cervical cancer screening for Hispanic migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Michigan. 309 eligible patients living in two communities in Michigan (May 2011–August 2011) comparing migrant farmworkers (non-permanent) to seasonal farmworkers (permanent) Regional (Intra-national): Migration between Michigan, US and other regions in the US Migrant status: migrant farmworkers defined as those who reported that in the last year, they had traveled out of Michigan to work
Other group: all others were defined as seasonal farmworkers
Cancer: Cervical
Measured as 1) ever Pap test and 2) a recent Pap test (self-report).
Migrant and seasonal farmworkers did not have significantly different rates of either 1) ever having a Pap test or 2) having a recent Pap test (88% vs. 87.4).^ There was no difference in rates of cervical cancer screening between non-permanent/migrant farmworkers and permanent/ seasonal farmworker groups. 20 6
Kristensen & Bjerkedal 2010 ([57]*)doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-009-9417-9MESH: Emigration and Immigration Retrospective cohort study of Norwegians between 1967 and 1976 with follow-up January 1992 to December 2004 using multiple national registries (birth, cancer, and cause of death registry, fd-trygd) to assess mortality and incidence of cancer among different groups of migrants. 626,928 individuals separated into three groups based on available data: 1) non-emigration, 2) emigration to another country, and 3) repatriation National: Migration between Norway and other international destinations Migrant status
Migration history included measure of person-time after repatriation
Other groups: person-time 1) before emigration; 2) during emigration
Cancer: First incident cancer Cancer (per 100,000 person-years): 66.9 after return/repatriation vs. 13.2 during emigration vs 57.0 before emigration). Adjusted rate ratios comparing emigrants to non-emigrants (0.19, CI 0.13–0.30) and return migrants to non-emigrants 0.80 (0.58–1.11). There was no difference in cancer incidence between non-permanent/return migrants and non-migrants; there was a difference in cancer incidence between permanent migrants and non-emigrants 21 10
McGorrian et al. 2011 ([58]*)
doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1741826711428059MESH: Transients and Migrants
Cross-sectional study of the All-Ireland Traveller Health Study (AITHS) to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors in the Traveller population to the general population in Ireland. 1878 adult Travellers compared to 3445 participants from the Irish population survey with lower socioeconomic status. The Traveller population to the general population Regional (intra-national): Migration within regions of Ireland Migrant status
Traveller: defined as an indigenous minority population with a nomadic tradition
Self-identification as a Traveller was the measure
Diabetes (self-report); CHD (self-report) Diabetes: Traveller rate (10.9) > general population (4.6%)***CHD: Age-adjusted Traveller rate (12.7%) > general population (12.5). ^ The non-permanent migrant Traveller population has a higher prevalence of diabetes than the general population. 21.5 7
Mocellin & Foggin 2008 ([59]*) doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.06.005MESH: Transients and Migrants Cross-sectional study using data from 1992 to 1994 on the relationship between geographic mobility of semi-nomadic pastoralists and health outcomes. 615 households and 3167 individual nomadic pastoralists from three diverse provinces in Mongolia. Regional (intra-national): Migration within regions of Mongolia Migrant status
Semi-nomadic pastoralism: “implies extensive pastoralism
based on periodic changes of pastures during the course of the entire or the greater part of the year”
Included several migration/geographic mobility attributes:
1. Distance traveled
2. Temporal character of the migration
CHD: symptoms related to heart disease (self-report) Participants reporting geographic mobility had a significantly greater risk of symptoms related to CHD than those without mobility (AOR: 1.65).*** Those reporting frequent movements were 2.96 times more likely to have symptoms related to CHD than those moving less frequently.* Higher geographic mobility was associated with greater CHD symptoms. 19 6
Parry et al. 2007 ([60]*)
doi:https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2006.045997
MESH: Transients and Migrants
Cross-sectional study of Roma and Travellers’ health outcomes to determine whether health inequities are explained by socioeconomic disadvantage or ethnic minority group membership. 260 Roma and Travellers in the United Kingdom (non-permanent migrant) compared to 260 individuals of low socio-economic status, rural and urban status, Pakistani origin; or African Caribbean origin. Regional (intra-national): Migration within UK Migrant status
Identification as Roma or Traveller vs. not
Also measured whether Travellers travel all year, in the summer, or rarely travel
CHD: Symptoms of chest pain, possible angina (self-report based on Rose Angina Scale); Diabetes (self-report)Cancer: (self-report) CHD: Chest pain/discomfort: Roma and Travellers 34% vs. comparison group 22%.** Possible angina symptoms: Roma and Travellers 30% vs matched comparison group 20%.** Heart disease (including angina): Roma and Travellers 8% vs. matched comparison group 4%.*No significant differences reported for diabetes or cancer. The non-permament Roma and Traveller populations have higher rates of angina symptoms as compared to individuals of low socio-economic status, rural and urban status, Pakistani origin; or African Caribbean origin. 19.5 4
Peters et al. 2009 ([61]*)
doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13557850802699130
Found from review of references
Cross-sectional study to compare Roma and Travellers’ health outcomes with other ethnic minorities and low-income populations. See Parry et al. 2007 See Parry et al. 2007 See Parry et al. 2007 CHD: Parry et al. 2007 CHD: African Caribbean 32% > Roma and Travellers 30% > Whites 18% > Pakistani Muslim 12%.** Multivariate analyses found that Pakistani group had reduced odds compared to Roma and Travellers.* The non-permanent migrants Roma and Traveller populations have worse outcomes as compared to some but not all comparison groups 19 5
Riosmena et al. 2013 ([62]*) doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-012-0178-9MESH: Emigration and Immigration Cross-sectional study using two nationally representative datasets: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, 1997–2007) in the US; the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS, 2001) in Mexico to compare the prevalence of diabetes between different migrant populations. MHAS: 5138 Mexican men, 382 with history of living in Mexico with United States. NHIS: 39,985 White men, 1729 United States-born Mexican-Americans, and 1328 Mexican immigrants. Compare four groups: US-born Mexican-American men, non-Hispanic white men and Mexican-born men (non-migrant and return migrant). National: Migration between US and Mexico Migrant status: Return migration (not specifically defined) implied as those who have emigrated and then returned to the original sending country of origin
Duration of stay: in years in receiving country; for return migrants (during since return to sending country)
Diabetes: Ever diagnosed (self-report) No difference in diabetes between groups: Analyses adjusted for age, education, and time since return (for return migrants). Longer US experience had greater odds of diabetes compared to shorter US experience. No difference in prevalence of diabetes between the three groups (non-migrants, return migration, and immigrants). 20.5 8
Ullmann et al. 2011 ([40]*) doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.05.037MESH: Transients and Migrants Cross-sectional study using data from the Mexican Migration Project in Mexico (2007–2009) to compare health status for returned migrants vs. non-migrants. 2121 men (heads of household) from 14 locations in Mexico. National: Migration between United States and Mexico Migrant status Return migrants): Defined as people with migration experience to the US but are in Mexico at the time of the survey
Migration trips Number of trips a head of household took to the US(A trip was defined as a visit to the US for work, job search, or “stable residency.” Short visits were not included)
Duration of stay Measured as number of months living in the US
Diabetes (self-report); CHD: Heart attacks (self-report) Return migrants were significantly more likely than non-migrants to have experienced a heart attack or heart disease (6.9% vs. 3.6%).* They were more likely to have diabetes/high blood sugar (12.0% vs. 9.9%) but this difference was not significant.^In multivariate analyses adjusting individuals with migration experience had 2 times greater odds of having had a heart attack/heart disease than those without.** Return migrants were more likely to report heart disease. 22 9
Wong et al. 2008 ([63]*)
Doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1438.2007.00970.x
keyword: migrant
Cross-sectional study (January 2004–December 2005) on cervical cancer screening among female sex workers (FSWs) and migrant workers. 245 FSWs screened at an outreach clinic in Hong Kong. Regional (intra-national): Migration between Hong Kong and China Migrant status
Non-local FSWs were defined as those with a temporary “visitor’s visa”
Other group: New immigrants were defined as “local FSWs”
Cervical Cancer:(based on pap smear results) Compared to local FSWs, non-local FSWs were less likely to receive a Pap smear (19.2% vs. 42.6%),* more likely to have abnormal Pap results,* and higher grade cervical change in multivariate analyses (AOR: 17.13).* Temporary migrants were less likely to have a Pap smear, abnormal Pap results, and higher grade cervical changes. 17 5