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Table 4 Predictors of perceived health improvements since initiating e-cigarette use: confirmatory factor analysis with covariates model

From: Perceived health effects of vaping among Hungarian adult e-cigarette-only and dual users: a cross-sectional internet survey

Variable Sensory improvement Physical functioning Mental health improvement
Gender −0.32 −0.12 −0.06
Dual users −0.56 −0.50 −0.29
Age −0.01 −0.01 −0.01
Any adverse event due to e-cigarette use −0.58 −0.55 −0.25
Educational level 0.07 − 0.08 − 0.09
Duration of e-cigarette use 0.23 0.24 0.12
Intensity of smoking before e-cigarette use 0.33 0.26 0.16
High nicotine content of e-liquid 0.14 −0.08 0.06
R 2 16.7% 13.6% 4.2%
  1. Note: Partial regression coefficients. Bolded coefficients are significant at p < 0.05. Gender (0: Males, 1: Females). Dual users (0: e-cigarette-only users, 1: Dual users). Age is continuous variable. Any adverse event due to e-cigarette use (0: No adverse event, 1: Report of any adverse event). Educational level (0: Lower than college level education, 1: College or higher level of education). Duration of e-cigarette use (0: A year or less, 1: Longer than a year). Intensity of smoking before e-cigarette use (0: ≤19 cigarettes per day, 1: ≥20 cigarettes per day). High nicotine content of e-liquid (0: ≤6 mg or nicotine-free, 1: ≥7 mg nicotine)