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Table 1 Sociodemographic and health characteristics of mothers and children under 2 years of age living in the municipality of Cacuaco, Luanda, Angola, and their crude association with underweight and stunting, 2010 (N = 749)

From: Malnutrition and its associated factors: a cross-sectional study with children under 2 years in a suburban area in Angola

Sample characteristics na (%) or median CI 95%b or Q1 - Q3c Crude PRd (95%CI) for underweighte Crude PR (95% CI) for stuntinge
Mother’s age (years) 25 (21–30) 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
Mother’s place of birth
 Luanda Province 76 (10.2) (12.5–8.1) 1.00 1.00
 Another Province 669 (89.8) (91.4–86.8) 1.04 (0.59–1.85) 1.06 (0.74–1.52)
Marital status
 Not living with partner 110 (14.7) (17.4–12.2) 1.00 1.00
 Living with partner 639 (85.3) (87.8–82.6) 1.13 (0.67–1.90) 1.45 (1.01–2.10)
Mother’s education level (years of school)
 5 years or more 432 (65.8) (69.2–62.3) 1.00 1.00
 1 to 4 years 225 (34.2) (37.7–30.8) 0.93 (0.62–1.40) 1.23 (0.98–1.55)
Mother’s occupation
 Self-employed 327 (43.9) (47.2–40.1) 1.00 1.00
 Housewife 316 (42.4) (45.8–38.6) 1.22 (0.85–1.76) 0.85 (0.68–1.06)
 Other 102 (13.7) (16.2–11.2) 0.61 (0.31–1.20) 0.60 (0.40–0.89)
Partner’s education level (years of school)
 5 years or more 461 (93.1) (94.8–91.0) 1.00 1.00
 1 to 4 years 34 (6.9) (7.2–6.5) 1.17 (0.45–3.00) 0.72 (0.47–1.10)
Partner’s occupation
 Public sector employee 165 (25.2) (28.5–22.2) 1.00 1.00
 Private sector employee 331 (50.5) (54.1–46.8) 1.18 (0.76–1.84) 0.90 (0.70–1.16)
 Self-employed 129 (19.7) (22.8–17.0) 0.52 (0.26–1.05) 0.76 (0.54–1.07)
 Other 30 (4.6) (5.0–4.2) 1.09 (0.45–2.65) 0.55 (0.26–1.16)
Gestational age at the onset of prenatal care (in months) 3 (2–4) 1.07 (0.96–1.21) 1.08 (1.01–1.15)
Number of prenatal visits 4 (4–6) 0.99 (0.89–1.09) 0.96 (0.90–1.02)
Place of delivery
 At home 228 (30.5) (33.9–27.2) 1.00 1.00
 At the health service 520 (69.5) (72.8–66.1) 1.82 (0.57–1.17) 0.79 (0.63–0.98)
Occurrence of death of other children
 No 533 (71.2) (74.4–67.8) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 216 (28.8) (32.2–25.6) 1.30 (0.91–1.87) 1.20 (0.96–1.50)
Child’s age (in months) 10.12 (4.2–16.0) 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 1.02 (1.01–1.04)
Child’s sex
 Male 361 (49.2) (52.9–45.6) 1.00 1.00
 Female 373 (50.8) (54.4–47.1) 1.24 (0.87–1.76) 1.07 (0.87–1.33)
Birth weight (in grams)
  < 2500 85 (13.3) (16.0–11.0) 1.00 1.00
  ≥ 2500 553 (86.7) (89.0–84.0) 0.85 (.050–1.43) 0.86 (0.62–1.18)
Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months
 No 128 (47.6) (51.3–44.0) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 141 (52.4) (56.0–48.7) 0.89 (0.51–1.54) 0.86 (0.59–1.26)
Breastfeeding under 24 months
 No 110 (14.7) (17.4–12.2) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 638 (85.3) (87.8–82.6) 0.73 (0.47–1.12) 0.80 (0.61–1.04)
Up to date weight monitoring of the child
 No 292 (39.6) (43.3–36.1) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 446 (60.4) (63.9–56.7) 0.92 (0.65–1.31) 0.75 (0.60–0.92)
Child with diarrhea in the last 15 days
 No 487 (65.0) (68.4–61.5) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 262 (35.0) (38.5–31.6) 1.15 (0.81–1.64) 1.37 (1.11–1.69)
Child with fever in the last 15 days
 No 502 (67.0) (70.4–63.5) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 247 (33.0) (36.5–29.6) 0.98 (0.68–1.43) 1.13 (0.91–1.41)
Presence of mosquito nets (seen by the research staff)
 No 366 (48.9) (52.5–45-2) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 383 (51.1) (54.8–47.5) 0.90 (0.64–1.27) 1.99 (0.80–1.22)
Child’s main caregiver
 Mother 573 (76.6) (79.6–73.4) 1.00 1.00
 Another person 175 (23.4) (26.6–20.4) 1.25 (0.85–1.83) 1.29 (1.02–1.62)
Number of people in the household 6 (4–8) 0.96 (0.90–1.04) 1.00 (0.97–1.04)
Presence of hypochloryte in the home (for water treatment)
 No 441 (59.0) (62.6–55.5) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 307 (41.0) (44.6–37.4) 1.14 (0.80–1.62) 1.01 (0.82–1.25)
Garbage disposal
 Collected by the city 248 (33.2) (36.7–29.9) 1.00 1.00
 Not collected 498 (66.8) (70.1–63.3) 0.98 (0.68–1.42) 1.06 (0.84–1.33)
Family socioeconomic score 7 (5–7) 0.92 (0.83–1.01) 0.99 (0.93–1.05)
  1. aNumber of subjects
  2. b95% CI: 95% Confidence Interval
  3. cQ1-Q3: Intequartile range
  4. d PR: Prevalence Ratio
  5. eUnderweight and stunting have been defined as binary variables (yes or no) according to the WHO definition of two or more Z scores below the median