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Table 2 Associations of breakfast frequency defined using three categories with physical activity and sedentary time in children from 12 countries

From: Association between breakfast frequency and physical activity and sedentary time: a cross-sectional study in children from 12 countries

  Marginal means (95% CI) p for breakfast frequency main effect p for breakfast frequency by study site interaction
Rare (n = 389) Occasional (n = 784) Frequent (n = 5055)
Sedentary Total (min/d) 517 (510 to 524) 509 (504 to 515) 510 (507 to 513) 0.14 0.32
Morning (min/d) 183 (181 to 186) 180 (178 to 182) 180 (179 to 181)a 0.04 0.51
Morning (% time) 61 (60 to 62) 60 (59 to 60.5) 60 (59 to 60)a 0.01 0.27
Afternoon (min/d) 334 (328 to 339) 329 (325 to 333) 330 (328 to 332) 0.32 0.40
Afternoon (% time) 57 (56 to 57) 56 (55 to 56) 56 (56 to 56) 0.42 0.46
Light PA Total (min/d) 311 (305 to 317) 318 (314 to 322) 316 (314 to 319) 0.12 0.56
Morning (min/d) 100 (97 to 102) 102 (101 to 104) 102 (101 to 103) 0.09 0.84
Morning (% time) 33 (33 to 34) 34 (34 to 35) 34 (34 to 35)a 0.04 0.66
Afternoon (min/d) 211 (207 to 215) 216 (213 to 218) 214 (212 to 216) 0.17 0.54
Afternoon (% time) 36 (35 to 37) 37 (36 to 37) 36 (36 to 37) 0.24 0.61
Moderate PA Total (min/d) 42 (41 to 44) 43 (41 to 44) 44 (43 to 45) 0.14 0.47
Morning (min/d) 12 (12 to 13) 13 (12 to 13) 13 (12 to 13) 0.05 0.26
Morning (% time) 4.1 (3.9 to 4.3) 4.2 (4.0 to 4.3) 4.3 (4.2 to 4.4) 0.04 0.17
Afternoon (min/d) 30 (29 to 31) 30 (29 to 31) 31 (30 to 31) 0.46 0.52
Afternoon (% time) 5.2 (5.0 to 5.4) 5.2 (5.0 to 5.3) 5.2 (5.1 to 5.4) 0.57 0.58
Vigorous PA Total (min/d) 18 (17 to 19) 18 (18 to 19) 19 (18 to 19) 0.50 0.68
Morning (min/d) 4.8 (4.3 to 5.2) 5.2 (4.9 to 5.5) 5.2 (5.0 to 5.4) 0.12 0.25
Morning (% time) 1.6 (1.4 to 1.7) 1.7 (1.6 to 1.8) 1.7 (1.6 to 1.8) 0.09 0.22
Afternoon (min/d) 13 (12 to 14) 13 (13 to 14) 14 (13 to 14) 0.83 0.89
Afternoon (% time) 2.3 (2.1 to 2.5) 2.3 (2.2 to 2.4) 2.3 (2.3 to 2.4) 0.85 0.89
MVPA Total (min/d) 61 (58 to 63) 61 (59 to 63) 62 (61 to 64) 0.21 0.42
Morning (min/d) 17 (16 to 18) 18 (17 to 19) 18 (18 to 19) 0.05 0.19
Morning (% time) 5.7 (5.3 to 6.0) 5.9 (5.6 to 6.1) 6.0 (5.8 to 6.2)a 0.03 0.11
Afternoon (min/d) 44 (41 to 46) 44 (42 to 45) 44 (43 to 45) 0.58 0.60
Afternoon (% time) 7.5 (7.1 to 7.8) 7.5 (7.2 to 7.7) 7.6 (7.4 to 7.7) 0.66 0.64
  1. Abbreviations: 95% CI 95% confidence intervals, PA physical activity; rare = breakfast consumed 0–2 days/week; occasional = breakfast consumed 3–5 days/week; frequent = breakfast consumed 5–7 days/week; PA physical activity, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity
  2. Marginal means are adjusted for age, sex, highest level of parental education, time segment-specific accelerometer and BMI z-score
  3. Significance accepted at p ≤ 0.05 and shown in bold. aSignificantly different from rare breakfast consumption, Bonferroni adjusted