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Table 3 Hazard ratios for Improved Functional Ability Among Women According to Socioeconomic Status

From: Socioeconomic status and improvement in functional ability among older adults in Japan: a longitudinal study

Socioeconomic Status Disability Group at the Time of the Initial Assessment
Mild (n = 989) Moderate (n = 816) Severe (n = 407)
Crude Modela Crude Modela Crude Modela
HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI) HR (95.0% CI)
Education (years)
 ≤9 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 10–12 0.98 (0.64–1.52) 1.03 (0.65–1.63) 0.95 (0.68–1.34) 0.98 (0.68–1.41) 1.16 (0.74–1.83) 1.32 (0.81–2.18)
 13+ 0.67 (0.31–1.45) 0.63 (0.28–1.41) 1.10 (0.67–1.81) 1.24 (0.74–2.10) 1.39 (0.73–2.62) 2.16 (1.03–4.53)*
Income (quartiles)
 Q1 (lowest) Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Q2 1.14 (0.62–2.08) 1.20 (0.65–2.24) 0.72 (0.45–1.14) 0.78 (0.48–1.29) 1.89 (0.97–3.66)+ 2.12 (1.04–4.34)*
 Q3 0.87 (0.44–1.72) 0.89 (0.43–1.82) 0.96 (0.60–1.51) 1.09 (0.67–1.79) 1.08 (0.53–2.19) 0.94 (0.45–1.98)
 Q4 (highest) 1.21 (0.66–2.23) 1.21 (0.65–2.27) 0.83 (0.53–1.29) 0.92 (0.57–1.49) 1.85 (1.06–3.22)* 1.66 (0.92–3.00)+
Occupation
 Manual Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Non-Manual 0.94 (0.57–1.55) 0.97 (0.57–1.67) 0.88 (0.62–1.27) 0.81 (0.54–1.20) 0.74 (0.46–1.18) 0.65 (0.38–1.12)
  1. **P < .01, *P < .05, +P < .10. aAdjusted for age, other socioeconomic status, marital status, living status, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and municipality. CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; Q, quartile; Ref., referent category. Estimates for missing categories of SES indicators were not reported