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Table 1 Characteristics of Veterans with confirmed/probable vs. suspected carbon monoxide poisoning, 2010–2017

From: Carbon monoxide poisoning surveillance in the Veterans Health Administration, 2010–2017

Characteristic Confirmed and Probable
N = 1755
Suspected a
N = 3736
p-value b Combined
N = 5491
  No. (%) No. (%)   No. (%)
Injury Category:
 Unintentional 746 (42.5) 3259 (87.2) <  0.001 4005 (72.9)
 Assault 10 (0.6) 19 (0.5) 0.77 29 (0.5)
 Intentional Self-Harm 349 (19.9) 222 (5.9) <  0.001 571 (10.4)
 Undetermined 650 (37) 236 (6.3) <  0.001 886 (16.1)
Encounter setting:
 Inpatient 458 (26.1) 277 (7.4) <  0.001 735 (13.4)
 Non-VA 23 (1.3) 175 (4.7) <  0.001 198 (3.6)
 Outpatient 1274 (72.6) 3284 (87.9) <  0.001 4558 (83)
Gender:
 Female 199 (11.3) 419 (11.2) 0.89 618 (11.3)
 Male 1556 (88.7) 3317 (88.8) 0.89 4873 (88.7)
Age groups (years):
  < 44 429 (24.4) 1077 (28.8) <  0.001 1506 (27.4)
 45–64 883 (50.3) 1704 (45.6) 0.001 2587 (47.1)
  > 65 443 (25.2) 955 (25.6) 0.80 1398 (25.5)
Race/Ethnicity:
 AI/AN 11 (0.6) 29 (0.8) 0.54 40 (0.7)
 Asian 6 (0.3) 25 (0.7) 0.13 31 (0.6)
 Black 253 (14.4) 538 (14.4) 0.99 791 (14.4)
 Hispanic/Latino 67 (3.8) 188 (5) 0.05 255 (4.6)
 Multi-racial 19 (1.1) 18 (0.5) 0.01 37 (0.4)
 NH/OPI 12 (0.7) 33 (0.9) 0.44 45 (0.8)
 Unknown 101 (5.8) 329 (8.8) <  0.001 430 (7.8)
 White 1286 (73.3) 2576 (69) 0.001 3862 (70.3)
%COHb blood level
 Present at time of encounter b 668 (38) 182 (4.9) <  0.001 850 (15.5)
 Blood level > 9% c 206 (30.8) 8 (4.4) <  0.001 214 (25.2)
Death
 Died within 30 days of encounter 26 (1.5) 2 (0.1) <  0.001 28 (0.5)
 Died within 1 year of encounter 89 (5.1) 11 (0.3) <  0.001 100 (1.8)
  1. Note: AI/AN, American Indian/Alaskan Native; NH/OPI, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander; COHb, carboxyhemoglobin
  2. aSuspected cases (based on ICD-9-CM codes only) did not occur after September 30, 2015 when coding system changed to ICD-10-CM
  3. bPerformed same day, or 1–2 days before or after date of CO poisoning coded encounter. If more than one test was performed per unique patient, highest blood level measurement was used
  4. cFor subgroup of patients with carboxyhemoglobin level present at time of encounter, N = 850