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Table 2 Prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption at baseline (2004–2008) and resurvey (2013–2014), by sex

From: Patterns and trends of alcohol consumption in rural and urban areas of China: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank

  Men Women
Baseline Resurvey Baseline Resurvey
Overall
Number of participants 210,259 9569 302,632 15,427
Drinking categories, %
 Abstainer 20.4 34.9 63.6 82.0
 Ex-weekly 3.8 6.3 0.4 0.7
 Reduced-intake 4.9 3.8 0.4 0.5
 Occasional 37.7 26.4 33.5 14.9
 Current weekly 33.2 28.6 2.1 1.9
Among current weekly drinkers
Number of participants 69,904 2732 6248 292
Types consumed^, %
 Strong spirit (≥40% alcohol) only 41.5 41.8 47.6 39.4
 Weak spirit (< 40% alcohol) only 19.8 16.0 11.4 12.0
 Beer only 20.1 13.5 22.6 12.3
 Rice wine or grape wine only 11.0 12.3 15.7 27.1
 Mixed 7.7 16.3 2.7 9.2
Mean consumption, g/session^ 49.9 55.6 22.7 24.1
Number of drinking days per week, %
 1–2 19.9 14.9 33.1 21.9
 3–5 18.0 14.0 21.6 15.4
 6–7 62.1 71.1 45.2 62.7
Types consumed on special occasions, %
 Strong spirit (≥40% alcohol) only 35.7 35.8 41.4 33.9
 Weak spirit (< 40% alcohol) only 16.3 14.7 9.9 10.6
 Beer only 10.9 8.4 16.7 11.0
 Rice wine or grape wine only 6.6 9.3 12.3 25.7
 Mixed 30.5 31.8 19.6 18.8
Mean consumption on special occasions, g/occasion 147.4 116.3 55.1 41.3
Drinking patterns, %
 Drinking outside meal. 14.1 17.6 13.8 20.9
 Heavy episodic drinking^a 29.8 34.7 18.2 17.8
 Heavy episodic drinking on special occasionsa 83.6 72.9 57.1 43.8
 Problem drinking indicator(s)b 23.9 23.8 9.8 9.2
Flushing response after drinking 17.9 15.5 23.6 13.7
Mean age started weekly drinking 28.7 29.3 37.7 40.4
  1. aHeavy drinking episode is defined as drinking > 60 g of pure alcohol in one session for men and > 40 g for women
  2. bReporting one or more in the past month of: drinking in the morning; unable to work or do anything due to drinking; depressed, irritated or lost control due to drinking; couldn’t stop drinking; had shakes when stopped drinking
  3. ^Based on alcohol intake data reported on the last time the participants drank