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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Epidemiology of khat (Catha edulis) consumption among university students: a meta-analysis

Author(year) (reference number) Sample size Response rate Country Type of use Outcome (magnitude current and lifetime khat use)
Dida N. et.al (2014) [33] 603 97.9 Ethiopia Current use Overall 16.92%(n/N = 102/603)
Tesfaye G,et al. (2013) [34] 1022 98.3% Ethiopia Current use Overall 23.6%(n/N = 241/1022)
Men 28.7%(n/N = 223/777)
Women 7.3% n/N = 18/245)
Lifetime Overall 41%(n/N = 419/1022)
Men 47.6%(n/N = 370/777)
Women 20% (n/N = 49/245)
Hagos EG, et. Al (2013) [35] 271 100% Ethiopia Ever use Overall 9.2%(n/N = 25/271)
Current use Overall 4%(n/N = 11/271)
Mekonnen T. et.al (2017) [36] 725 97.05% Ethiopia Current use Overall 10.20% (n/N = 74/725)
Men 11.83%(n/N = 57/482)
Women 7%(n/N = 17/243)
Tadesse M. et.al (2014) [37] 611 98% Ethiopia Life time use Overall 41.08% (n/N = 251/611)
Men 44.9 (n/N = 195/434)
Women 31.6% (n/N = 56/177)
Eshetu E.et al. (2006) [38] 564 89% Ethiopia Current use Overall 14.36% (n/N = 81/564)
Men 17.9(n/N = 77/431)
Women 3%(n/N = 4/133)
lifetime use Overall 31.91% (n/N = 180/564)
Men 37.2(n/N = 160/431)
Women 14.9%(n/N = 20/133)
Shiferaw D.et al. (2017) [39] 600 92.6% Ethiopia Life time use Overall 33.3%(n/N = 200/600)
Kassa A. et al. (2016) [40] 586 94.5% Ethiopia Current use Overall 16.3%(n/N = 98/586)
Men 18.58%(n/N = 89/479)
Women 8.41%(n/N = 9/107)
Life time use Overall 24.1%(n/N = 141/586)
Men 26.93%(n/N = 129/479)
Women 11.21%(n/N = 12/107)
Gebreslassie M. et.al (2013) [41] 756 98.7% Ethiopia Current use Overall 27.9%(n/N = 211/756)
Men 35.6%(n/N = 158/444)
Women 17%(n/N = 53/312)
Lifetime use Overall 28.7%(n/N = 217/756)
Men 36.5%(n/N = 162/444)
Women 17.6%(n/N = 55/312)
Deressa W. et.al (2010) [42] 622 78% Ethiopia Lifetime use Overall 14.1%(n/N = 88/622)
Men 17.1%(n/N = 77/426)
Women 5.6%(n/N = 11/196)
Current use Overall 3.7%(n/N = 23/622)
Men 4.9(n/N = 21/426)
Women 1%(n/N = 2/196)
Dessie Y. et.al (2013) [43] 430 97.3% Ethiopia Lifetime use Overall 40%(n/N = 172/430)
Adere A. et.al (2017) [44] 655 89.7% Ethiopia Lifetime use Overall 13%(n/N = 85/655)
Men 16.3%(n/N = 74/454)
Women 5.5%(n/N = 11/201)
Current use Overall 10.4(n/N = 68/655)
Men 13%(n/N = 59/454)
Women 4.5%(n/N = 9/201)
Mulugeta Y. et.al (2015) [45] 745 98.8% Ethiopia Lifetime use Overall 19.6%(n/N = 146/745)
Men 27.54%(n/N = 92/334)
Women 13.14%(n/N = 54/411)
Current use Overall 12.73%(n/N = 96/754)
Men 18.56%(n/N = 62/334)
Women 8.27%(n/N = 34/411)
Kebede Y. (2002) [46] 1103 87.7% Ethiopia Current use Overall 17.5%(n/N = 193/1103)
Lifetime use Overall 26.7%(n/N = 294/1103)
Reda AA et.al (2012) [25] 1721 91,1% Ethiopia Lifetime use Overall 24.2%(n/N = 427/1721)
Abdeta et al. (2017) [47] 619 95.1% Ethiopia Current use Overall 23.9%(n/N = 148/619)
Men 26.0%(n/N = 125/464)
Women 14.8%(n/N = 23/155)
Lifetime use Overall 26.3%(n/N = 163/619)
Astatkie et al. (2015) [48] 1255 97.3 Ethiopia Current use Overall 11.1%(n/N = 139/1255)
Lifetime use Overall 22.8%(n/N = 286/1255)
Gebrehanna et al. (2014) [49] 3001 77.5% Ethiopia Current use Overall 12.7%(n/N = 380/3001)
Men 14.9%(n/N = 348/2328)
Women 4.8%(n/N = 32/673)
Lifetime use Overall 24%(n/N = 720/3001)
Men 27.3%(n/N = 636/2328)
Women 12.5%(n/N = 84/673)
Alsanosy et al. (2013) [51] 3764 91.80 Saudi Arabia Current Overall 23.1%(n/N = 868/3764)
Men 38.5%(n/N = 834/2165)
Women 2.1%(n/N = 34/1599)
Lifetime Overall 24.8%(n/N = 935/3764)
Men 40.5%(n/N = 876/2165)
Women 3.7%(n/N = 59/1599)
Quadri et al. (2015) [55] 476 95% Saudi Arabia Lifetime Overall 51.89%(n/N = 247/476)
Ageely (2009) [27] 2466 Saudi Arabia Current use Overall 15.2%(n/N = 375/2466)
Kubas Ma et.al. 2015 [53] 460 Yemen Current use 13.04% (n/N = 60/460)
Alkhadernl et.al (2009) [54] 100 Yemen Lifetime use 54%(n/N = 54/100)
Dhaifullahet.al (2013) [55] 360 Yemen Lifetime use 33.9%(n/N = 122/360)
Dachew BA.et al. (2014) [50] 836 95.8% Ethiopia Current use Overall 13.6%(n/N = 114/836)
Men 14.7%(n/N = 79/538)
Women 11.7%(n/N = 35/298)
Lifetime use Overall 17.9%(n/N = 150/836)