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Table 4 The relationship between female migration and risk of HIV acquisition before and after ART scale-up period in the AHRI population-based HIV incidence cohort

From: Effect of ART scale-up and female migration intensity on risk of HIV acquisition: results from a population-based cohort in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

  Category HR aHR SE 95% CI
Age category: [40+] 15–19 7.39*** 4.98*** 0.63 3.14 7.89
  20–24 10.86*** 5.61*** 0.85 3.63 8.68
25–29 9.46*** 4.15*** 0.83 2.63 6.56
30–34 5.83*** 2.51*** 0.65 1.51 4.15
35–39 2.80*** 1.46 0.39 0.83 2.56
Marital status: [Single] Divorced/Separated 0.07*** 0.97 0.51 0.35 2.74
  Married - Monogamous 0.19*** 0.48*** 0.11 0.31 0.77
Married - Polygamous 0.13*** 0.27 0.28 0.04 1.97
Sexual debut age: [Before age of 17] After 17 0.64*** 0.83*** 0.07 0.69 0.98
Ever pregnant: [Yes] No 1.00 1.20 0.24 0.81 1.77
Contraception use: [Yes] No 0.72*** 1.00 0.11 0.81 1.24
Number of sexual partners: [Less than 5 partners] ≥5 1.99*** 0.75 0.21 0.44 1.29
Household income: [Middle 60%] Bottom 20% 0.93 1.07 0.12 0.86 1.34
  Top 20% 0.80*** 0.91 0.11 0.71 1.16
Area: [Rural] Peri-urban 1.38*** 1.32*** 0.12 1.10 1.58
Urban 1.22 0.84 0.29 0.43 1.64
Number of external migration movements per year: [None] One movement per year 2.10*** 0.90 0.23 0.54 1.49
  Two or more years movement per year 2.88*** 2.94*** 0.94 1.56 5.53
ART scale-up period: [Before 2010] Year 2010 and on 0.81*** 1.04 0.12 0.82 1.32
Interaction terms of annual movement and ART-scale-up period [Before 2010] Once per-year/2010 and on   1.21 0.50 0.53 2.72
  Twice or more per-year/2010 and on   0.18*** 0.14 0.04 0.83
  1. * p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 only for bivariate analyses
  2. Reference category in bracket