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Table 4 Prevalence of Asthma Symptoms and Other Allergic Conditions According to Education level

From: Prevalence of asthma and other allergic conditions in adults in Khuzestan, southwest Iran, 2018

Asthma symptoms and other allergic conditions Education level b
Illiterate Low Moderate High P-value¥
Yes %a(95% CI) Yes %a(95% CI) Yes %a(95% CI) Yes %a(95% CI)
Asthma-like symptoms 72 23.8(18.3–29.3) 243 15.6(12.0–19.1) 333 16.4(13.4–19.4) 309 22.0(16.5–27.4) 0.009*
Wheezing 46 15.1(10.3-20.0) 175 11.2(8.5–14.0) 231 11.4(9.2–13.7) 219 15.7(11.2–20.1) 0.050
Wheezing with shortness of breath 49 16.8(11.9–21.6) 159 10.3(8.3–12.4) 223 11.1(9.1–13.1) 191 13.6(10.0–17.3) 0.038*
Wheezing in the absence of a cold 47 16.1(11.2–21.0) 151 9.9(7.9–12.0) 212 10.7(8.6–12.8) 179 12.9(9.8–15.9) 0.025*
Waking with tightness in the chest 54 17.8(12.6–22.9) 164 10.5(8.4–12.6) 219 10.7(8.7–12.7) 182 12.8(9.4–16.2) 0.019*
Woken by an attack of breathlessness 49 16.1(11.6–20.7) 137 8.8(7.0–10.7) 193 9.4(7.6–11.3) 146 10.2(7.5–12.8) 0.013*
Woken by attack of cough 63 20.8(15.5–26.1) 188 12.0(9.2–14.8) 251 12.3(9.9–14.7) 200 13.8(10.5–17.1) 0.017*
Current asthma 35 11.6(7.5–15.7) 124 8.0(6.3–9.7) 154 7.6(6.2–9.1) 145 9.9(5.8–14.1) 0.260
Asthma attack 30 9.9(6.1–13.7) 102 6.5(5.0–8.1) 138 6.8(5.5–8.1) 124 8.5(4.4–12.5) 0.341
Medications for asthma 31 10.2(6.5–13.9) 116 7.5(5.8–9.2) 127 6.3(5.0–7.5) 127 8.7(5.0–12.4) 0.217
Physician-confirmed asthma 28 9.3(5.6–13.0) 100 6.5(4.9–8.1) 114 5.6(4.5–6.8) 101 7.0(4.5–9.4) 0.254
Allergic Rhinitis 78 24.8(19.9–29.7) 430 27.4(24.5–30.3) 525 25.6(23.1–28.2) 428 29.7(26.2–33.2) 0.098
Airway hyperresponsiveness 108 34.0(27.6–40.4) 563 35.8(32.2–39.3) 733 35.7(32.1–39.4) 651 45.2(38.8–51.7) 0.001*
Eczema 42 13.3(9.2-17.3) 152 9.8(8.0–11.5) 187 9.1(7.4–10.8) 197 13.7(10.7–16.7) 0.001*
  1. a: Prevalence estimates were weighted using normalized cross-sectional weights
  2. b: Low educational level (primary school & middle school), moderate educational level (high school and associated degree), and high educational level (bachelor, master and doctorate degree)
  3. ¥ χ2 test
  4. *P < 0.05
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