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Table 4 Effects of exposure to parental smoking and intention to smoke in childhood on the relationship of SEP across the early life course and mid-adulthood (CDAH-2, 2009–11) smoking in the best-fitting life course models, Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study, Australia*

From: Socioeconomic position over the life course from childhood and smoking status in mid-adulthood: results from a 25-year follow-up study

Best-fitting life course models Model 1 (adjusted for age + sex) Model 2 (Model 1 + exposure to parental smoking) Model 3 (Model 1 + intention to smoke in the following year)
RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) Excess risk explained, % RR (95% CI) Excess risk explained, %
Sensitive period model
 Former smokers at CDAH-2§
  Manual, baseline 0.79 (0.63, 0.98) 0.78 (0.63, 0.98) −2.6 0.76 (0.60, 0.95) −14.6
  Manual, CDAH-1 1.25 (0.93, 1.68) 1.24 (0.93, 1.67) 3.0 1.20 (0.89, 1.60) 22.1
  Manual, CDAH-2 1.00 (0.73, 1.37) 0.99 (0.72, 1.35) > 100 0.97 (0.71, 1.33) > 100
Current smokers at CDAH-2§
 Manual, baseline 1.32 (1.00, 1.73) 1.21 (0.93, 1.58) 33.0 1.19 (0.89, 1.59) 40.2
 Manual, CDAH-1 1.42 (0.95, 2.11) 1.43 (0.98, 2.10) −3.4 1.24 (0.83, 1.86) 42.3
 Manual, CDAH-2 1.55 (1.04, 2.30) 1.42 (0.97, 2.09) 23.0 1.50 (1.01, 2.25) 7.8
Accumulation model, No. of times manual
 Former smokers at CDAH-2§ 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 1.00 (0.90, 1.11) > 100 0.97 (0.87, 1.07) > 100
 Current smokers at CDAH-2§ 1.43 (1.27, 1.61) 1.36 (1.21, 1.53) 16.0 1.32 (1.17, 1.48) 20.6
  1. RR: relative risk; CI: confidence interval; CDAH: childhood determinants of adult health
  2. * About 20% participants missed childhood potential mediators’ data. Multiple imputation by chained equations was used to deal with the missing data, with 20 imputations
  3. The percent excess risk explained = (RRu – RRa)/(RRu – 1) * 100. RRu was the average RR in Model 1. RRa was the average RR in Model 2 or 3
  4. Estimation of excess risk as a percentage of Model 1 RR is unreasonable when the RR in Model 1 was extremely close to 1
  5. § Non-smokers were the excluded category for the outcome
  6. Bold RRs (95% CIs) indicate statistically significant results in the best-fitting life course models