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Table 3 Number, rate and relative risk of socio-demographic characteristics of drowning deaths by category, Australia, 2006–2014

From: Pattern of intentional drowning mortality: a total population retrospective cohort study in Australia, 2006–2014

  Intentional drowning Unintentional drowning Intentional drowning versus unintentional drowning Water-transport related Undetermined intent
Total cases (N = 450) Annual mortality rate per 100,000 Relative Risk (CI) Total cases (N = 1765) Annual mortality rate per 100,000 Relative Risk (CI) χ2 (p-value) Total cases (N = 342) Annual mortality rate per 100,000 Relative Risk (CI) Total cases (N = 173) Annual mortality rate per 100,000 Relative Risk (CI)
Sex
 Male 278 0.28 1.6 (1.4–2.0) 1370 1.39 3.5 (3.1–3.9) 47.3 (p < 0.001)a 290 0.29 5.6 (4.2–7.6) 125 0.13 2.6 (1.9–3.7)
 Female 172 0.17 1* 395 0.40 1*   52 0.05 1* 48 0.05 1*
Age Group
 0–4 years 6 0.02 1* 213 1.65 1* 53.1 (p < 0.001)b 9 0.07 1* 5 0.02 1*
 5–14 years 0.01 0.5 (0.1–2.6) 88 0.35 0.2 (0.2–0.3) 17.1 (p < 0.001)b 15 0.06 0.9 (0.4–2.0) 0.01 0.8 (0.1–4.7)
 15–24 years 22 0.08 3.5 (1.0–11.6) 203 0.75 0.5 (0.4–0.6) 17.2 (p < 0.001)b 49 0.18 2.6 (1.3–5.3) 19 0.07 4.5 (1.1–19.3)
 25–34 years 43 0.15 6.5 (2.0–21.0) 265 0.93 0.6 (0.5–0.7) 8.9 (p = 0.002)b 55 0.19 2.8 (1.4–5.6) 19 0.07 4.3 (1.0–18.6)
 35–44 years 52 0.18 7.9 (2.5–25.4) 205 0.73 0.4 (0.4–0.5) 0.001 (p = 1.000) 69 0.24 3.5 (1.8–7.0) 26 0.09 6.0 (1.4–25.1)
 45–54 years 86 0.32 13.8 (4.4–43.5) 207 0.77 0.5 (0.4–0.6) 17.0 (p < 0.001)b 52 0.19 2.8 (1.4–5.6) 28 0.10 6.7 (1.6–28.2)
 55–64 years 81 0.36 15.6 (4.9–49.4) 214 0.96 0.6 (0.5–0.7) 10.7 (p = 0.001)b 41 0.18 2.6 (1.3–5.4) 30 0.13 8.7 (2.1–36.3)
 65–74 years 66 0.45 19.3 (6.1–61.3) 163 1.11 0.7 (0.6–0.8) 11.4 (p = 0.001)b 32 0.22 3.1 (1.5–6.5) 21 0.14 9.2 (2.2–39.3)
 75 years and over 94 0.76 32.6 (10.3–102.8) 207 1.67 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 25.6 (p < 0.001)b 20 0.16 2.3 (1.1–5.1) 25 0.20 13.0 (3.1–54.8)
State/territory of usual residence
 New South Wales 131 0.20 1.7 (0.6–4.5) 599 0.93 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 3.8 (p = 0.056) 76 0.12 1.3 (0.4–4.1) 74 0.12 1.9 (0.5–7.7)
 Victoria 98 0.20 1.6 (0.6–4.4) 265 0.54 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 12.1 (p = 0.001)c 27 0.05 0.6 (0.2–2.0) 43 0.09 1.4 (0.4–5.9)
 Queensland 96 0.24 2.0 (0.7–5.4) 432 1.09 1.6 (1.1–2.5) 2.0 (p = 0.173) 76 0.19 2.1 (0.7–6.6) 20 0.05 0.8 (0.2–3.5)
 South Australia 27 0.18 1.5 (0.5–4.3) 92 0.63 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 0.4 (p = 0.484) 18 0.12 1.3 (0.4–4.6) 13 0.09 1.5 (0.3–6.4)
 Western Australia 66 0.32 2.6 (1.0–7.2) 224 1.08 1.6 (1.0–2.5) 1.2 (p = 0.273) 110 0.53 5.8 (1.8–18.2) 9 0.04 0.7 (0.2–3.3)
 Tasmania 24 0.53 4.3 (1.5–12.4) 66 1.45 2.2 (1.3–3.5) 2.3 (p = 0.140) 25 0.55 6.0 (1.8–19.8) 14 0.26 4.3 (1.0–19.2)
 Northern Territory 8 0.19 1.6 (0.4–6.4) 64 3.12 4.6 (2.9–7.5) 9.0 (p = 0.001)c 10 0.34 3.7 (1.0–14.3) 0.00 0.0 (UTBC)
 Australian Capital Territory 0.18 1* 22 0.67 1* 0.4 (p = 0.632) 0.09 1* 0.06 1*
Remoteness of usual residence
 Major Cities 314 0.23 4.0 (0.6–28.6) 971 0.70 0.3 (0.2–0.4) 32.1 (p < 0.001)e 122 0.09 0.2 (0.1–0.3) 97 0.07 0.6 (0.2–2.5)
 Inner Regional 86 0.24 4.2 (0.6–30.0) 338 0.93 0.4 (0.3–0.6) 0.0 (p = 1.000) 63 0.17 0.3 (0.2–0.7) 39 0.11 0.9 (0.2–3.9)
 Outer Regional 45 0.23 4.1 (0.6–29.9) 229 1.27 0.6 (0.4–0.8) 4.4 (p = 0.036) 49 0.27 0.5 (0.3–1.1) 29 0.14 1.2 (0.3–5.2)
 Remote 0.07 1.3 (0.1–14.0) 45 1.60 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 7.7 (p = 0.003)e 13 0.46 0.9 (0.4–2.1) 0.07 0.6 (0.1–4.5)
 Very Remote 0.06 1* 40 2.26 1* 8.2 (p = 0.001)e 9 0.51 1* 0.11 1*
Indigenous identification
 First Peoples of Australia NS 0.06 1* 97 1.96 1* 19.398 (p < 0.001) a 11 0.22 1* 7 0.14 1*
 Non-Indigenous 439 0.25 4.1 (1.3–12.7) 1629 0.91 0.5 (0.4–0.6)   289 0.16 0.7 (0.4–1.3) 163 0.09 0.7 (0.3–1.4)
  1. Data Source: ABS Cause of Death Unit Record File 2006–2014
  2. NS = Not Shown* Where RR was calculated, the group with the lowest rate (except for age groups, where the second lowest rate was used) for intentional drowning deaths was used as the reference point
  3. aStatistically significant (p < 0.05)
  4. bA modified Bonferroni test has been applied, and statistical significance is deemed at p < 0.0056
  5. cA modified Bonferroni test has been applied, and statistical significance is deemed at p < 0.0063
  6. dA modified Bonferroni test has been applied, and statistical significance is deemed at p < 0.0063
  7. eA modified Bonferroni test has been applied, and statistical significance is deemed at p < 0.0100